|2013-1||Evaluation et enseignement : pour quels objectifs ? par quels moyens ?|
(Evaluation and teaching: for what goals ? by what means ?)
|Click the book to abstract!||This issue has been put on line in its integrality on the Cairn portal: Cairn.info|
Présentation. Evaluer : pour quoi ? comment ?(Presentation. Evaluation and teaching: for what goals ? by what means ?)pp. 5-9
Jean-Marie DE KETELE (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique)Les épreuves externes servent-elles l’action ?(Are external examinations helpful ?)pp. 9-27
During the last few years, international surveys have invaded the area of politics, media and pedagogy. They will probably have had some effects, but were all these effects positive ? Haven’t they had some, not always perceived, perverse side effects ? And more importantly, what is their effect on the action, i.e. on all those who contribute to improve the language of teaching ? In order to answer these questions, we attempt to analyse the effects of international tests on the basis of nine double edged questions (negative and positive). Next, we examine what is done on a national level in an effort to understand the factors that influence the obtained results and in what way the national evaluations have been influenced by these analyses. From all these analyses, we try to deduct the conditions for these international and national tests to be considered as complementary.
Jacques TARDIF & Bruno DUBOIS (Faculté d’éducation, Université de Sherbrooke / Faculté de pharmacie, Université Laval)De la nature des compétences transversales jusqu’à leur évaluation : une course à obstacles, souvent infranchissables(On the nature of transversal competencies until their evaluation : a race with sometimes impossible obstacles)pp. 29-45
Transversal competences define and target knowledge that every human being should develop in school in order to understand the complexity of situations in normal life and act intelligently. However, without anchoring them in concrete situations, the course of development of these competences and their assessment seem to stay rather vague. After defining the concept of competence and sketching the guidelines of competence assessment, the article illustrates the difficulty of influencing critical learning inherent in transversal competence and the necessity of evaluating it. The last part of the article makes suggestions for professionalisation of this activity.
Sébastien GEORGES (Centre international d’études pédagogiques, Sèvres)Evaluer la production orale au travers d’une démarche scientifique(Evaluate oral production by means of a scientific proocedure)pp. 47-58
In this paper we propose a methodology for designing and administering a test of speaking in conditions that are of the highest importance for the testees. With examples of high stake assessments where speaking is not the only ability measured, we will demonstrate how a rigorous and scientific approach offers advantages to the test in terms of validity, reliability, sensitivity and equity. We will also examine how the adepts of this approach are an appropriate answer to the initial request and to the expectation of the final users. The benefits for the stakeholders will also reviewed.
Jean-Marie DE KETELE (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique)L’évaluation de la production écrite(The evaluation of writing)pp. 59-74
The term “evaluating written language” hides underlying polysemic concepts that this article aims at clarifying from the start. Therefore both the certifying and the formative evaluation of written production will be addressed. The former is doubly institutional: its aim is to give an orientation and a planification of learning writing skills, and also constitutes the basis of the final decision of success or failure. The latter, widely claimed but less widely applied, aims to improve the learning of the skill during the learning, and is based on diagnostic concepts, and, in coherence with those, on the setting up of permanent actions allowing learners to progress in their learning. These aspects will be illustrated by concrete examples.
François-Marie GERARD (BIEF, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique)L’évaluation au service de la régulation des apprentissages : enjeux, nécessités et difficultés(Evaluation as a tool for regulating learning : challenges, necessities and difficulties)pp. 75-92
School assessment is a systematic procedure which allows enhancing the value of acquired learning as well as giving it meaning.The first challenge is to distinguish between certification evaluation, which aims at probing success in learning, and formative evaluation. This latter is more oriented to improving the acquired learning in itself. This “assessment for learning” can take different forms, depending on the standpoints of the various teachers. A second challenge concerns grasping the evaluation objects: on the one side the knowledge and know-how, and on the other side, the competences needed for their mobilization in order to solve a complex situation.
Jean JOUQUAN, Florence PARENT & Marie-Claude AUDÉTAT (Faculté de médecine, Université de Brest / Université Libre de Bruxelles / Université de Montréal)Des analogies entre le raisonnement médical et l’évaluation formative(Analogies between medical reasoning and formative evaluation)pp. 93-106
Many points of convergence or genuine similarities are commonly identified between the fields of health and education. More specifically, this paper aims to examine the hypothesis that there is a significant analogy between clinical medical reasoning and formative learning assessment. From basic definitions, the authors first examine how clinical reasoning and formative learning assessment are two clinical approaches, highlighting the epistemological tensions they share. Then, through comparative approach, they analyse successively similarities or distinctions between the two activities, with respect to several attributes, including objects, processes and postures they imply. Analyses mainly refer to the clinical reasoning of doctors and formative assessment is particularly considered in the context of formative supervision in the clinical training context.
Anne JORRO (Université de Toulouse)L’accompagnement des enseignants dans l’activité évaluative face à des situations de production écrite(Accompanying teachers in their evaluating situations of written production)pp. 107-116
This article examines the support of teachers in evaluative activity concerning the skills of writing of 6th grade pupils. We first propose a reflection on the support to teachers confronted with evaluative dilemmas about writing situations, then, we identify the stakes in their professional development.
Les relations communautaires en Belgique. Approches politiques et linguistiques, de J. Perrez, M. Reuchamps (dir.)
par A. Krieg-Planquepp. 117-119
L’Orthographe des dictionnaires français. La construction de la norme graphique par les lexicographes, de C. Martinez
par J. Pellatpp. 119-122
Cheminements philosophiques dans le monde du droit et des règles en général, de P. Amselek
par S. Taylorpp. 122-123