|2009-1||Linguistique et traduction|
(Linguistics and translation)
|Click the book to abstract!||This issue has been put on line in its integrality on the Cairn portal: Cairn.info|
Maryvonne BOISSEAU & Hélène CHUQUET (Paris 3 / Poitiers)Linguistique et traduction : réflexions théoriques et applications(Linguistics and translation: theoretical reflection and applications)pp. 5-9
Maryvonne BOISSEAU (Paris 3)Les discours de la traductologie en France (1970-2010) : analyse et critique(Translation science in France (1970-2010) : a critical analysis)pp. 11-24
Starting from J. Guillemin-Flescher’s paper published in the 2003 RFLA issue devoted to translation, this contribution re-examines her classification of theoretical models contrasting it to current practice. The theoretical discourse on translation is considered in relation to the greater porosity between independent disciplinary subjects (literature, linguistics and “civilization”) as well as to the development of translation studies in France. A new categorization taking into account the complex history of their interaction as well as their relation to the very concepts of theory and practice and to more recent developments is thus suggested.
Françoise CANON-ROGER (Reims)Traduction et réélaboration interprétative(Translation and interpretative reworking)pp. 25-38
Translators translate texts, not languages. The linguistic approaches that fail to take into account their semiotic characteristics are inadequate. It is more appropriate to maintain traductology and translation within the tradition of hermeneutics that deals with texts as cultural objects. Translation is an interpretative reworking of texts whose aim is transmission. Text semantics provides a single theoretical framework for a top-down approach to interpretation and translation. A typology of genres would benefit the practice of translation since local determinations result from generic constraints. Semantic figures and backgrounds evolve and change thus determining textual passages whose boundaries are set in the course of interpretation. It is at this local level, and irrespective of the linear order of speech or writing, that the process of translation is carried out.
Agnès CELLE (Paris-Diderot)Question, mise en question : la traduction de l'interrogation dans le discours théorique(Interrogative sentences in French and their counterparts in English academic discourse)pp. 39-52
The aim of this article is to contrast interrogative sentences in French with their English counterparts in academic discourse, using a sample of translated examples. Questions are highly frequent in French, but not in English. In French, questions involve the addressee as a fictitious anchor-point without taking his / her point of view into account. In English, interrogative sentences appear either in embedded position or as supplements. Enunciative location may only be achieved by the main clause. In this way, modal – as opposed to intersubjective – distancing is created in English.
Raluca NITA (Nantes)De la traduction intralinguale à la traduction interlinguale : le cas des verbes introducteurs en roumain et en français(From intralingual to interlingual translation: introductory verbs in French and Rumanian)pp. 53-66
Verbs of saying are traditionally analysed as semantically dependent on the extralinguistic environment in which direct speech occurs. It is however argued here that there is a two-way relation of mutual dependency between the reporting phrase and the reported utterance, the introductory verb being seen as a contextual “translation” marker dependent on the reported clause. The degree of mutual semantic dependency between reporting verb and reported clause varies according to text type and to language-specific strategies, leading to the question of what is meant, in contrastive terms, by “faithful” translation of such verbs.
Gaëtanelle GILQUIN & Ake VIBERG (Louvain, Belgique / Uppsala, Suède)How to make do with one verb: a corpus-based contrastive study of do and makepp. 67-82
This paper compares do/make in several related European languages, some having two different verbs at their disposal (e.g. do and make in English) and others having to make do with just one verb (e.g. French faire). Using translation corpus data, we demonstrate that, while there are similarities between some of these verbs (especially when the languages belong to the same group, i.e. have either one or two verbs), there are also considerable differences in the functions these verbs can perform or the preferences they exhibit, which results in a generally low degree of equivalence in translations. Our study also presents some results from an experiment aiming to establish the cognitively most salient functions of the different verbs. These results confirm the existence of differences among do/make verbs, and also show that frequency in language does not necessarily imply salience in the mind.
Manuel TORRELLAS CASTILLO (Poitiers)Corpus bilingues massifs et mémoires de traduction : la version espagnole des textes juridiques de l'UE(Large bilingual corpora and translation memories: the Spanish version of legal texts in the EU)pp. 83-92
Massive bilingual corpora which can now be compiled with the available computing facilities are particularly relevant to conduct linguistic research in translation studies. The corpus of legal documents of the European Acquis have been aligned and investigated with two software packages, ALINEA and PARACONC. These corpora once aligned provide translation memories and terminology databases for a given field. Dealing with legal and technical documents in which recurring passages are frequent, professional translators improve the consistency and productivity of their production significantly.
Antonia CRISTINOI-BURSUC (Orléans)Les erreurs dans la traduction automatique du genre dans les couples français-anglais et anglais-français : typologie, causes linguistiques et solutions(Gender errors in automatic translation between English and French: typology, linguistic causes and solutions)pp. 93-107
By means of the notions of behavioural classes, marking and morphosyntactic markers this paper shows that all the translation (or Machine Translation) problems that arise when translating gender from French into English or vice-versa can be predicted a priori at a lexical level, for all the linguistic items concerned. It also proves that systematic solutions to these problems can be found and implemented. The approach defended here for French and English can be applied to other languages or language pairs, and to other linguistic categories, and could thus contribute to the improvement of Machine Translation systems.
Lance HEWSON (Genève, Suisse)Brave New Globalized World? Translation Studies and English as a Lingua Francapp. 109-120
While “global” English is today a reality that translators have to face in their everyday work, little research has yet been done into the implications of English as a lingua franca (ELF) for translation studies. After briefly looking at academic writings on ELF per se, I propose to introduce a distinction between different levels of competence of ELF-users and to examine the role that they may play firstly as initiators, then as translators (whether translating out of or into English), and finally as readers of texts. I then turn my attention to the way in which “ordinary” translators have necessarily to develop strategies in order to deal with ELF texts. In the final part of the paper, I look at the ways in which ELF should encourage translation theorists both to question the way in which they conceive of the translation operation, and to reconsider some of the key concepts that are commonly used, in particular the relationship pertaining between a source text and its translation.
Kirsten MALMKJÆR (Middlesex, Grande-Bretagne)What is Translation Competence?pp. 121-134
This article seeks to throw light on the notion of translation competence by way of a comparison with, on the one hand, the notion of linguistic competence and, on the other, competence as a notion operating in social life. I argue for a notion closer to the concept of Linguistic Competence than is customarily presented in the translation studies literature, suggesting that such a notion would go some way towards explaining data derived from studies of young interpreters and would be compatible with findings in the neurolinguistic study of bilingualism.
La traduction audiovisuelle. Approche interdisciplinaire du sous-titrage, de J. Lavaur & A. Serban
par J. Khalifapp. 135-136
Conscience du plurilinguisme, de M. Candelier, al. (éds)
par N. Thaminpp. 137-139
Des mots et des femmes. Rencontres linguistiques, de A. Farina, R. Raus (éds)
par J. Boulangerpp. 139-142