Past issues

2004-2Plurilinguisme et politique européenne
(Multilingualism and European politics)
Click the book to abstract!This issue has been put on line in its integrality on the Cairn portal:
  • Gaetano BERRUTO (Turin, Italie)
    Plurilinguisme et politique européenne. Présentation
    (Multilingualism and European politics. Presentation)
    pp. 5-9
  • Vincenzo ORIOLES (Udine, Italie)
    Plurilinguisme : modèles interprétatifs, terminologie et retombées institutionnelles
    (Plurilingualism: interpretative models, terminology and institutional effects)
    pp. 11-30

    The present study deals with several questions related to the conceptual and applicative background of plurilingualism, a technical term which covers a group of phenomena connected with the simultaneous use of more than one language or language variety in the competence of one individual or in the repertoire of a linguistic community. First of all the Author presents a thorough analysis of the evolution of the cultural sensibility in front of a theme which, although removed in the past, is nowadays a central issue in scientific researches. An in-depth study of the notion of plurilingualism throughout the years as well as an analysis of other technical terms strictly connected follow in order to understand the institutional effects due to this renewed interest in the phenomenon. Finally a description of scientific activities is presented and research carried out in the field of plurilingualism by the International Centre of Plurilingualism of the University of Udine is then presented.

  • Peter Hans NELDE (Bruxelles, Belgique)
    Le nouveau plurilinguisme de l'Union Européenne et la linguistique de contact
    (The new multilingualism in the EU and the need for a language policy based on contact)
    pp. 31-46

    If a language policy, inspired by at least some issues of the New Multilingualism, is to be Europeanised, language policy makers should accept (1) that multilingualism is "normal", monolingualism is exceptional ; (2) that multilingualism is interdependently connected with factors such as economy, politics, sociale welfare and education ; (3) that not one but several language policies may be possible and necessary. Language policy is not a uniform, centralistic or hierarchic device and must be based on a non-discriminatory subsidiarity principle, perhaps in connection with a language-planning coordination centre which would encourage further research, take care of the application of research results and try to support and ameliorate the situation of those 50-70 million minority speakers within the European Union who could, with their multilingual and multicultural heritage, develop an attitude to a better understanding and to the neutralisation of conflicts. In such a way European language policies are not only possible but imperative.

  • Silvia DAL NEGRO (Bolzano/Bozen, Italy)
    Language contact and dying languages
    pp. 47-58

    This article deals with language death phenomena within a wider framework of languages in contact. A few relevant issues of language death research are critically discussed in order to focus on the peculiarities of this phenomenon as opposed to other outcomes of contact, such as the development of pidgin and creole languages. In particular, the article deals with the role of imperfect native speakers in communities characterized by language shift, with the interaction between language-external and language-internal aspects, and with the kinds of structural consequences that are expected in long-lasting attrition phases. Finally, an emphasis on environmental factors to explain linguistic phenomena is advocated.

  • Augusto CARLI (Modène, Italie)
    Plurilinguismo e lingue minoritarie nella politica linguistica europea / Plurilinguisme et langues minoritaires dans la politique linguistique de l'Union Européenne
    (Multilingualism and minority languages in European language policy)
    pp. 59-79

    This article deals with the language policy measures recently adopted by the European Union (EU) and aims to highlight some problematic and contradictory points. The analysis focuses on two specific aspects: a) maintenance and protection of minority languages, and b) 'work languages' institutional regime. A critical interpretation of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (1998) allows for the identification, discussion and evaluation of both the positive and negative aspects which characterise this legal document. Theoretical and practical contradictions become more evident when 'work languages' are considered within the Institutions since the rich European multilingualism is sacrificed to an embarrassing English monopoly.

  • Patrick RENAUD (Paris 3)
    Actions sur les langues et les situations linguistiques : observer les pratiques
    (Taking action on languages and language situations: looking at the practice)
    pp. 81-94

    Bilingualism can be approached either according to a traditional approach of languages as separately identifiable, describable and usable objects or through the observation of ordinary speech practices, i.e. language in action, analysis viewing languages as socially-constructed, unstable objects, which can be variably categorized according to practical ends in the course of action. This approach has been chosen as the framework of the present paper for the analysis of bilingual interactions. Two kinds of observations are made: far from being merely analyzable in terms of code-switching, bilingual interaction has to be described in finer strata, from linguistic sub-systems to ways of speaking and addressing participants in which discourse is jointly realized through the adjustment of such resources to the on-going action. Thus embodying languages in meaning-making social practices leads to questioning drastically reducing and lethal models for language planning which are founded on academic approaches of bilingualism.

  • Mario SQUARTINI & Carla MARELLO (Turin, Italie)
    Plurilinguisme et didactique des langues : quelques applications de l'Aspect Hypothesis
    (Multilingualism and language didactics: applications of the Aspect Hypothesis)
    pp. 95-104

    In this article some results of Second Language Acquisition research are tentatively applied to the education of foreign language teachers, who are becoming more and more aware of the 'plurilinguistic' coexistence of learner varieties in classroom settings. In dealing with the acquisition of Tense-Aspect morphology in Romance languages major attention is paid to the interaction between aspectual value and Aktionsart (lexical aspect), pointing out some protypical examples that could contribute to enhance the metalinguistic competence of teachers.

  • Rita FRANCESCHINI (Sarrebruck, Allemagne)
    Weshalb brauchen Linguistien mehrsprachige Sprecher? / Pourquoi les linguistes ont-ils besoin de locuteurs plurilingues ?
    (Why do linguists need multilingual speakers?)
    pp. 105-124

    In light of the vast number of publications dedicated to the different aspects of multilingualism, one might wonder whether the analyses carried out so far have had an impact on the development of the theory of language in general. Are they merely the latest trend (due to intelligible and undisputable social reasons) or rather a real challenge for linguistics? This article first examines the terminology and then tries to answer these questions with eleven theses. It also highlights the importance of developing a linguistic theory based on multilingualism and the significance of the applied concepts for the analysis regarding the acquisition of a second (or even a third or fourth) language. The cognitive bases as well as the contemporary or separate handling of various languages on the mental level are discussed.

  • Georges LÜDI (Bâle, Suisse)
    Pour une linguistique de la compétence du locuteur bilingue
    (Towards a linguistic theory of the competence of a multilingual speaker)
    pp. 125-135

    Individual and social multilingualism are the default case and exploit in an optimal way the human language faculty; on the contrary, a monolingual individual is more and more handicapped in the modern world. However, because of numerous and ancient prejudices, most linguistic models and theories don't care about multilingualism. Based on a holistic approach of plurilingual competences, different ways of getting bilingual are distinguished in this paper and the question of the assessing plurilingual repertoires is discussed. A particular focus lies on bilingual speech. It is postulated that each theory of language should, to be valid, acknowledge the ways a plurilingual speaker/hearer exploits the totality of his or her linguistic resources for socially significant interactions in different forms of monolingual and plurilingual speech.

Book reviews
  • Linguistique française II : français langue étrangère. Syntaxe, lexique et textualité, de V. Fuchs & S. Meleuc
    par D. Flament
    pp. 137-138
  • Le français langue étrangère et seconde. Enseignement et apprentissage, de J. Defays & S. Deltour
    par J. Binon
    pp. 138-140
  • La préposition en français, de L. Melis
    par B. Hamma
    pp. 140-141
  • Recherches sur le français parlé, n°18, Autour du Corpus de Référence du Français Parlé, de P. Cappeau & al.
    par M. Debrock
    pp. 142-143