|2003-2||La traduction aujourd'hui : théories et pratiques|
(Translation today: theory and practice)
|Click the book to abstract!||This issue has been put on line in its integrality on the Cairn portal: Cairn.info|
Jacqueline GUILLEMIN-FLESCHER (Paris 7)Théoriser la traduction(Towards a theory of translation)pp. 7-18
Theory of translation is approached in this paper with special emphasis on the 20th century. The previous position is briefly touched upon to trace back to its origin the prevalent bone of contention: namely, orientation towards the source language or the target language. The large-scale development in both the practice and theory of translation in recent years has opened up new perspectives. These are defined and examined with respect to the relation between practice and theory and between theory of language and theory of translation. Finally the differences that are brought to light are shown to affect the concept of theory itself.
Philippe NOBLE (Ambassade de France, La Haye, Pays-Bas)Le texte d'Etty Hillesum, de l'original à la traduction française : un cheminement singulier(Translating Etty Hillesum: a singular endeavour)pp. 19-31
The journal and the letters of Etty Hillesum, a young Jewish woman who died in Auschwitz in 1943, are known in France through a translation of a partial edition, a kind of anthology published in the early 80s.This text therefore comes to us through a "double filter": one of the edition that follows only partly the original, and one of the translation that wants to do justice to the moral and religious bearing of the text, sometimes to the detriment of the spontaneity and the hesitations of an intimate journal. In the perspective of a new French translation, to appear in 2005, that is to take into account the whole of Hillesum's writings, the translator examines with the help of some examples the tension that exists between two aims of the translation: the presentation of a literary text and that of a personal historical document.
Nicolas FROELIGER (Paris 7)Binaire et liminaire : la forme en traduction technique(Binarity and exhaustiveness in technical translation)pp. 33-42
Translators are baroque characters inherently out of place. The way they look at technique and their very role in the translation process are layered with countless misunderstanding and prejudices. The craft of technical translation exhibits four aesthetical characteristics which, in a perfect world, would also be those of any technical text: exhaustiveness, monosemy, precision, and collective accessibility. More often than not, the output is much more standardized than the input was. The translated text is user-oriented and has to be seen as a machine. Its production summons up a technical imagination, also highly standardized, based on mathematics and geometry, whose rules are akin to those of modern architecture.
Pierre CAUSSAT (Paris 10)Simples aperçus sur quelques problèmes de la traduction philosophique(Some points of discussion in the field of translation and philosophy)pp. 43-54
The purpose of this paper is to root out the philosophical, and not strictly linguistical, issues of translating philosophy. Translating has been constantly present in the history of philosophy, but according to two modes of operation corresponding to two historical periods. First, the ancient scheme in which translating does not involve the kernel of philosophical speculation (idea of a pure gnosis irrespective of its expression in language); second, the modern scheme in which translation borders philosophy and alters philosophy's own self-consciousness ("philological state"). Thence follows the requirement of thinking anew an interaction between philosophy and translation where translating takes an active part in the act of philosophy itself, which, as interrogative thinking, elaborates a style of its own; so that there is a continuous link between "internal" translation (connection of thought with expression) and "external" translation (crossing from one language to another ).
Karl Johan DANELL (Parlement européen)Impossible mais nécessaire. Les dilemmes de la traduction en Union Européenne(Impossible but necessary. Dilemmas in translation activities in the EU)pp. 55-64
This essay treats the problems of translation in the European Parliament, and tries to combine two aspects: the daily work of the translators, and the possible links to more theoretical linguistic reflections. After presenting some basic facts, the essay goes on to a brief discussion of the following themes: - What should a competent translator know? - The official languages of the Union, now and after the enlargement; - IT developments, computer-aided translation, databases, etc.; - Language knowledge and language learning.
Anne-Marie WIDLUND-FANTINI (Parlement européen)L'interprétation de conférence(Conference interpreting)pp. 65-73
The aim of the present article is to describe the profession of conference interpreting from its beginnings, its organization within an International Association 50 years ago, as well as its membership conditions. The article goes on to describe how the profession has developed over the years, from the beginnings of consecutive interpretation at the League of Nations to the introduction of simultaneous interpretation at the Nürnberg Trials at the end of the nineteen-forties. A second part concerns the teaching of conference interpreting, and the present conditions of practice of the profession. It concludes with a description of multilingualism in the European Institutions and the present and future role of the conference interpreter on the eve of the enlargement of the European Union to 10 new member countries.
Margaret KING (ISSCO, Genève, Suisse)Traduction et technologie : état de la question(Translation and technology: state of the art)pp. 75-89
This article gives an overview of information technology as applied to the work of translation. It takes an historical approach, assessing the impact of changes over the last ten years. The theoretical basis of empirical systems is described briefly and informally, and the evolution of applications typical of translation work such as translation memory systems, machine translation systems, terminology management and extraction tools is discussed. Considerable emphasis is put on the development of information technology and on recent developments in the management and exploitation of information sources. The author concludes that the rapid evolution of the last ten years is only the beginning of a major shift which will have radical consequences for translators as for many other professions.
Hannelore LEE-JAHNKE (ISSCO, Genève, Suisse)The right translator in the right place : un défi pour la formation(The right translator in the right place: a challenge for trainers)pp. 91-98
CIUTI, an association of universities training interpreters and translators, aims at taking into account the changing needs of the market as far as language communication is concerned for which the fundamental theoretical and academic knowledge is a must. In order to know about market needs, the actors of the market must be in touch with the academics. Thus, the objective of this first Forum was to ask the following questions: What are the market needs today ? What will be the profile of translators and interpreters in the future ? What training should the trainers have ?
Christian BOITET (Grenoble 1)Automated Translationpp. 99-121
It is important to realise that human translation is difficult and diverse, and that automation is needed not only by end users, but also by translators and Interpreters. Also, automation itself comes in many forms. After briefly describing computer tools for translators, we will concentrate on the linguistic and computer approaches to the automation of translation proper. This survey will yield an array of criteria for categorizing existing CAT systems, with brief examples of the state of the art. Finally, we present perspectives of future research, development, and dissemination.
Linguistique française : français langue étrangère. La communication en français, de V. Fuchs & S. Meleuc
par D. Flament-Boistrancourtpp. 123-124
Le langage des médias : discours éphémères ?, de J. Härmä (éd.)
par M. Coulomb-Gullypp. 123-124