|2001-2||Langue et discours spécialisés|
(Language and specialized discourse)
|Click the book to abstract!||This issue has been put on line in its integrality on the Cairn portal: Cairn.info|
David BANKS (Brest)Analyse des discours spécialisés : le domaine anglais(Analyses of specialized discourse: the case of English)pp. 7-16
In the area of English studies, discourse analysis is carried out mainly within the framework of a functional theory. The best known of these theories is Systemic Functional Linguistics. Nevertheless, in France, the « théories de l'énonciation » have a role to play. Many studies take as their starting point the notion of genre, as defined by Swales. The contribution of non-verbal elements to a text constitutes a fertile area of research. Discourse analysis is not restricted to contemporary texts and diachronic studies have been carried out, notably in the area of scientific discourse. In addition to syntactic and semantic studies, there is work from a sociolinguistic point of view. Critical Discourse Analysis and Appraisal Theory are approaches that take the subjectivity of the analyst into account. Among the applications of discourse analysis in France, the attempt to help the French researcher publish in an international context is particularly important.
Danielle CANDEL, Pierrette MARCHAUDON & Violette TOLÉDANO (CNRS)Aspects du Groupe Nominal dans l'activité définitoire des scientifiques(Aspects of the noun group in scientific definitions)pp. 17-28
Two groups of terms have been gathered. The first one comes from a specialized text corpus, in which the terms are defined by the authors themselves. The second one comes from within the framework of institutional terminology (official terminology and neology committees), where terms have been selected by specialists themselves. Those two groups of terms therefore are repesentative of the specialties in question. Morphological characteristics of specialized terms have been emphasized; the variability of their discursive usages has also been highlighted.
Laurent HEURLEY (Amiens)Compréhension et utilisation de textes procéduraux : l'effet de l'ordre de mention des informations(Comprehending and using procedural texts: the order of presentation of information)pp. 29-46
Many psycholinguistic and ergonomic studies on procedural texts have, directly or indirectly, addressed the question of the effect of information order on user's processing. Results obtained in these studies gave rise to three general conclusions : (1) the way procedural texts are read, understood and their instructions followed depends on information order ; (2) initial mention of the main information (i. e. superordinate information) in texts, information blocks and sentences facilitates the processing of the text ; (3) the order of information effect depends on multiple factors such as : users' strategies, users' prior knowledge, referent and situation structures.
Pierre ZWEIGENBAUM (CNRS-LIMSI)Traitements automatiques de la terminologie médicale(Automatic processing of medical terminology)pp. 47-62
Specialized texts are characterized by a specific terminology. Medicine holds a particular position in this respect, both because of the impressive number of terms involved and of the amount of international effort devoted to build normalized terminologies. These terminologies play a key role in medical information and knowledge processing. A large part of the work performed on medical language processing is therefore centered on these terminologies, either as information targets or as knowledge sources. We present here, through examples drawn from our own work, various aspects of medical terminology processing.
Gérard PETIT (Paris 10)L’introuvable identité du terme technique(In search of the identity of technical terms)pp. 63-79
The notions of term and lexical unity (LU) are marked by the theoretical paradigm (t : terminological; l linguistic) in which they are conceptualized, the latter being itself defined inside its own discipline (Terminology or Linguistics). Contrary to an idea commonly held about Terminology and terminology in Linguistics - seen as a set of terms - considered as stabilisation and classification structures for concepts, the identity of term is extremely unstable. It is dependent on the conceptualization of LU made by each discipline. Relatively to the classic theory of terms (T,t), to its reconsideration (T,l) or to its appropriation by Linguistics (L,l), the notion of term is a construct which results from more or less controlled theoretical transfers, shifts or confusions.
Christine JACQUET-PFAU (Collège de France)Correcteurs orthographiques et grammaticaux : quel(s) outil(s) pour quel rédacteur ?(Spelling and grammar checkers : which tool(s) are suitable for which author ?)pp. 81-94
This article intends to question the users' assessment of so-called correction tools, spelling correction and syntactic recovery. Several criteria should be considered, namely : a- how correctors, whether integrated or autonomous, will operate; b- what should be their particular configuration in each case; and c- which correction constraints should precisely be defined in connexion with the users checking process. Our purpose is firstly to show that the use of the word "error" is, in this context, to be settled; secondly to examine the main characteristics of the 'correcticiels', and thirdly to propose a users' typology. Finally we will make a few suggestions as to how these tools can be used in the acquisition of the French language.
Sunniva WHITTAKER (Bergen, Norvège)La correspondance commerciale : apprentissage de stratégies discursives en langue étrangère(Commercial correspondence: learning discursive strategies in a foreign language)pp. 95-102
This article focusses on the acquisition of discourse strategies by foreign students learning French. The study is based on a corpus of business letters written by Norwegian students. Our aim is to demonstrate how many of the mistakes that occur in this particular genre are due to the fact that even advanced students tend to misinterpret discourse contexts and as a consequence, fail to choose the correct discours strategy. Whereas grammatical mistakes will be considered by the addressee as being due to a poor command of the language and therefore easily forgiven, a bad choice of discourse strategy will often be interpreted as a manifestation of impoliteness or servility.
Caroline SCHAETZEN (DE) (Bruxelles, Belgique)Le vocabulaire des produits génériques dans la grande distribution(The vocabulary of generic products in commercial distribution networks)pp. 103-113
The food and non-food terms from big stores deserve a thorough analysis: in today's self-service shopping, labels mentioning these denominations sell the products, together with the brand of the concern making them; second, this increasingly international terminology is currently coined or corrected with marketing and publicity specialists; last but not least, these terms include a series of vulgarized scientific ones which help understand vulgarization mechanisms.
Grammaire et linguistique, de G. Petiot
par R. Tomassonnepp. 115-117
Dictionnaire du français usuel, de J. Picoche & J. Rolland
par S. Delesallepp. 117-119