Past issues

1997-2Autour de l'écrit
(Issues in writing)
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  • Marie-Christine HAZAËL-MASSIEUX (Aix-en-Provence)
    L'évolution des langues créoles vers l'écriture
    (Creole languages on their way to writing)
    pp. 7-18

    This article tries to define the implications of the present evolution of creoles, which are essentially oral languages, towards writing. It aims to show that proceeding to the written form is not merely a technical question, but a multi-faceted problem, due to the fact that the conditions of communication are very different in writing as compared to the oral. The development of an autonomous literature plays in this regard a determining role.

  • Jean-Pierre DESCLÉS (Paris 4)
    Extraction d'informations de corpus composés de textes techniques
    (Information retrieval from corpora of technical texts)
    pp. 19-33

    Technical texts present interesting and so far poorly researched linguistic characteristics. In this article, a research project is described, carried out by a multidisciplinary group of linguists and computer scientists, which aims at devising and realising prototypes of computer programmes for extracting information from technical texts. This research, as is illustrated by concrete examples, has led to computer programmes that have the form either of networks between concepts or of phrases taken from the analysed texts, and that are, if necessary, accompanied by automatically assigned semantic information.

  • Liliane SPRENGER-CHAROLLES & Danielle BÉCHENNEC (CNRS-Paris V / CNRS-Paris)
    Sciences cognitives et acquisition de la lecture-écriture
    (Cognitive science and the acquisition of reading and writing)
    pp. 35-49

    Reading (and spelling) studies conducted in the framework of 'Cognitive Sciences' are based on models which have to take into account expert reading, reading acquisition as well as acquired and developmental reading disabilities. Predictions based on these models are compared to psycholinguistic observations, to neurolinguistic investigations, and/or to simulation data. These models, which have to explain general cognitive processes, must also take into account environmental parameters. The main objective of this paper is to explain reading (and spelling) acquisition processes. We review studies on English-, German-, Spanish-, and French-speaking children. All these languages have alphabets, but differ in the transparency of their grapheme-phoneme correspondences. Results of these studies might therefore allow to distinguish between what depends on universal processes and what depends on the linguistic environment. We describe methods used in reading (and spelling) studies also because striking differences between research results may also be due to methodological problems.

  • Christel LEUWERS & Séverine CASALIS (Lille 3)
    Développement de la compréhension syntaxique en situation de lecture et d'écoute
    (Development of the understanding of syntax in reading and writing)
    pp. 51-60

    Listening and reading comprehension of several syntactic structures was analysed with second to fifth grade readers. Three different structures were compared in both reading and listening: simple sentences, simple sentences with morphological markers for number and gender, and complex relative sentences. The difference between reading and listening was analysed systematically. Data showed that this difference changes with school level and with the type of syntactic structure and their specific constraints. The constraints that differentiate most between reading and listening were shown to be the identification of morphological markers necessary for identifying words (for simple sentences with markers) or the handling of working memory resources (for complex sentences).

  • Jean-Pierre JAFFRÉ (CNRS-Paris)
    Gestion et acquisition de l'orthographe
    (Policy in acquiring spelling)
    pp. 61-70

    In this article we first deal briefly with the major studies on acquisition of orthography over the past few years. Next, we present a typological description of the management of orthographical comptencies in school-learning settings.

  • Jean-François BONNOT (Strasbourg)
    Le développement linguistique du bilingue : aspects neurophysiologiques et acquisition du lexique
    (The linguistic development of bilinguals: neurophysiological aspects and the acquisition of the lexicon)
    pp. 71-80

    In this paper, the author describes some of the linguistic aspects of bilingual speakers' development and emphasizes particularly the cognitive data. In the first section, a number of neurophysiological mechanisms underlying language acquisition are sketched out. In the second section, some implications for the neurophysiology of bilingualism are examined. Lastly, the main trends of acquisition and processing of bilingual mental lexicon in children are put forward.

  • Eva LARSSON RINGQVIST (Wäxjö, Suède)
    Les constructions interrogatives dans le français des apprenants suédois
    (Interrogative constructions with Swedish learners of French)
    pp. 81-94

    The present article reflects an ongoing research project on the grammar and pragmatics of interrogative constructions in French. The perspective is that of second language acquisition with advanced learners. The aim of the article is to show that the use of a particular interrogative construction in French, which in the language of native speakers is governed by restrictions at different levels, is, in the case of learners, characterized by an imperfect knowledge of these restrictions and by the necessity to rely on specific production strategies.

Book reviews
  • Pratique des langues romanes, de S. Reinheimer & L. Tasmowski
    par A. Delaveau
    pp. 95-96
  • Grammaire critique du français, de M. Wilmet
    par A. Englebert
    pp. 97-98
  • Nouvelle-Calédonie, Pays kanak, un récit, deux histoires, de J. Dalhem
    par C. Pauleau
    pp. 98-100
  • Lire. Lecture et écriture : acquisition et troubles du développement, de L. Sprenger-Charolles & S. Casalis
    par J. Leybaert
    pp. 100-103
  • How in the world do students read?, de W. Elley
    par M. Lavallard
    pp. 103-104
  • Teaching reading around the world, de I. Lundberg & P. Linnakylä
    par M. Lavallard
    pp. 103-104
  • Effective schools in reading: Implications for planners, de T. Postlewaite & K. Ross
    par M. Lavallard
    pp. 103-104