Frédérique BRIN-HENRY (Centre Hospitalier de Bar-le-Duc)Using corpus-based analyses in specialised paramedical French2014, Vol. XIX-1, pp. 103-115
Diagnostic labels used in assessment reports in Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) show inconsistent semantic and syntactic variations. In this article we describe the way SLT terminology relates to the patients’ situation and the representations held by the professionals for each pathological condition. A corpus of 436 French reports was used to extract the most frequently used terms (such as “difficulté(s)”), to perform an analysis of the labelling process (e.g.: test usage, diagnosis according to patient age group and pathology) and to describe the most salient semantic and syntactic properties (e.g.: dynamic factor, use of prepositions “de/à”). Two major categories emerged with terms expressing on the one hand a procedural or functional and on the other hand a more systemic conception of the pathology. The aim is to establish new basis for a more accurate taxonomy.
Alain DEVEVEY (Lyon 2)Categorical organisation of the lexicon and Alzheimer's disease2001, Vol. VI-1, pp. 89-98
Based on recent studies that put into question the concepts of prototype and typicality, this study treats the processes of categorization by sufferers from Alzheimer's disease, in the light of two themes: clotting of the prototype into stereotype and distinction between, on the one hand, the representations of common objects developed by an individual in a very early stage of his development and, on the other hand, the socialized attainments acquired subsequently. We analyse the processes of categorization in five groups of subjects (English-speaking students, French-speaking students, sufferers from Alzheimer's disease and witnesses) paired by age, sex and level of studies. Our aim is to study two effects on the probability of categorical inclusion: the effect of constraints and categories (putting in contrast four types of categories - two "natural" ones and two "artefactual" or cultural ones), and the effect of typicality of examples, in the different groups of subjects. By this analysis, we aim to demonstrate specific behaviours shown by the group of sufferers.
Yoldès FOURATI-DAJEAN (Paris 5)Phonological representations and the structure of speech in hearing impaired children1999, Vol. IV-1, pp. 101-112
Much evidence supports the hypothesis that hearing-impaired children construct phonological representations and access their mental lexicon like normal hearing children. The question addressed here is whether these children use their phonological code for speech production. Phonological encoding, which integrates auditory, visual, and proprioceptive information, also implies temporal information which should allow them to anticipate the temporal structure of their own speech. In an experiment, we analyzed relative timing and pauses in sentences read by profoundly deaf children and matched normal hearing children between 9;7 and 11;7 years of age. Overall, sentences uttered by deaf children did not present the metric patterns of the French language. However, short phonological words were correctly timed. These results suggest that phonological programming must be distinguished from either lexical competence or temporal deficit.
Jacqueline LEYBAERT (Bruxelles, Belgique)The acquisition of reading skills with deaf children: the contribution of 'Completed Spoken Language'1996, Vol. I-1, pp. 81-94
It is a well known phenomenon that deaf children generally have many difficulties in acquiring reading and spelling in alphabetic orthographies. It is argued here that these difficulties mainly result from the fact that these children rely on lipreading to perceive spoken language and that their phonological representations are underspecified. Two lines of evidence are presented in support of this view: 1/ an analysis of how deaf children exposed to spoken language only and/or to signed language read and spell; 2/ an analysis of the effect of exposure to visual systems disambiguating lipreading on the development of phonological abilities. It is concludede that deaf children may develop reading and spelling along lines similar to those of hearing children, provided that they are exposed to a linguistic input in which all the phonological contrasts of spoken language are specified.
Marie-Claude PFAUWADEL-MONFRAIS (Hôpital Necker, Paris)Decomposing the syllable of the stutterer: phonetic evidence, phonological interpretation and methods for remediation1996, Vol. I-1, pp. 65-80
In a study of the production of six stutterers, the authors of the present article aim to analyse the influence of phonology on the cleaving of syllables that is characteristic of this speech trouble. Part of the study is devoted to the causes of very frequent inintelligibility of stutterers, and to the necessity for those speakers to restructure certain syntagms, particularly in French, where the typically French phenomenon of "liaison" creates a unique case of stuttering. The consequences for speech therapy are discussed.
Serge PINTO (Aix-Marseille)Disorders in motor control of speech: a contribution to the study of dysarthrias and dysphonias in normal speech comprehension2008, Vol. XIII-2, pp. 45-57
If dysphonia is clearly identified as a phonation disorder, dysarthria is often wrongly restricted to an arthric impairment. Actually, dysarthria is a motor speech disorder, whose origin is a lesion of the central or peripheral nervous system; it involves various possible deteriorations during the motor execution of speech, which influence respiratory, phonatory, resonatory, articulatory, and prosodic aspects of speech production. The distinction between dysphonia and dysarthria based on which anatomical level is lesioned does not accurately explain the duality between these terms; on the other hand, a distinction rather based on the neurological origin of the disorder would seem more adapted to describe as precisely as possible the multiple dysfunctions of voice and speech. In fact, the study of dysarthric and dysphonic speech for the better understanding of normal speech represents an original approach, which considers speech disorder as a model of its own for speech investigation.
Liliane SPRENGER-CHAROLLES (CNRS-Paris V)Acquisition of reading and writing skills and dyslexia: Review of the literature2003, Vol. VIII-1, pp. 63-90
The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the processes involved in reading/spelling acquisition as well as possible explanations of developmental pathologies. Results obtained in English, French, German, Spanish and Italian are examined. All these languages have alphabetic spelling systems but differ as to the "transparency" of the grapheme-phoneme relationship. The results of these studies enable to separate the parameters common to different languages from those that are language-specific both in the acquisition of reading and spelling and in the genesis of dyslexia. The review of the literature also allows to sustain a strong phonological hypothesis, namely that the successes and failures specific to reading (and spelling) depend on the one hand on the transparency of the grapho-phonological relations in the writing system and, on the other hand, on the quality of the phonemic representations of the subject
Thi Mai TRAN (Institut d’Orthophonie de Lille)Between normal and pathological speech production2001, Vol. VI-1, pp. 35-46
The production of speech is a complex cognitive activity, whose elaboration may be disturbed in various ways. Our purpose here is to explore the continuum between normal and pathological speech production. There are similitudes between performance errors by average speakers and the paraphasias produced by aphasics in the same circumstances; both kinds of perturbations affect the same linguistic units and reveal similar psycholinguistic mechanisms. Yet, production in these two cases differ according to several criteria, such as the error rate, the way the erroneous item and the target item are connected, the speaker's awareness of inadequacy, the comments he makes and his need for justification. Those elements point out to the boundaries that may be defined between normal and pathological speech.
Shirley VINTER (Besançon)Prosody and its importance in acquiring language skills by hearing impaired children2001, Vol. VI-1, pp. 21-34
Through analysis of adult-deaf child and adult-SLI child interaction, and after the presentation of the theoretical frame and aims of Interactive Developmental Intonology, we try to better understand the importance of prosody in early language acquisition. Our research focuses on suprasegmental development - rhythmical and melodic organization in the interaction -, and its effects on conversational and linguistic competences of handicapped children. Which are the conditions for sounds to become a canonical sentence? How a prelinguistic utterance, without words, can nevertheless have a linguistic modality?
Ray WILKINSON (Londres, Grande-Bretagne)Applying conversation analysis to aphasic talk: From investigation to intervention2006, Vol. XI-2, pp. 99-110
The analysis of interactions involving one or more speakers with aphasia, a language disorder acquired following brain damage, is an area of 'applied conversation analysis' (and applied linguistics) which has been the focus of a growing number of studies in recent years. It is also an area in which conversation analysis can be seen to have informed both intervention studies by researchers and the clinical practice of professionals working with these speakers and their families. This paper provides an overview of some of the main findings about aphasic talk which have been made by researchers drawing on conversation analytic findings into the structure of aspects of ordinary, non-aphasic, talk such as repair organization and turn organization, and indicates some of the ways in which this approach to aphasia has been used within intervention studies and everyday professional practice.