• Odile BAGOU (Genève, Suisse)
    Alignement lexical et segmentation de la parole
    (Lexical alignment and segmentation in speech recognition)
    2002, Vol. VII-1, pp. 67-82

    How do listeners segment the continuous speech input into words? This paper addresses this important question by reviewing current views of lexical segmentation. After providing some background to the more general problem of spoken word recognition, we examine the different cues - including phonetic, phonological, prosodic, and lexical cues - that have been shown to play a role in speech segmentation. We then analyze how these cues are used to locate alignment points in the continuous speech signal. These points serve to define what parts of the signal are matched with which representations in the mental lexicon. Several solutions to the alignment problem are discussed in light of existing experimental evidence.

  • Manuel BARBERA (Turin, Italie)
    Les lexies complexes et leur annotation morphosyntaxique dans le Corpus Taurinense
    (Complex lexical units and their morphosyntactic treatment in the Corpus Taurinense)
    2000, Vol. V-2, pp. 57-70

    Corpus Taurinense (CT) is the POS tagged version of ItalAnt Corpus, an electronic corpus of Old Italian texts (between 1251 and 1300). In this article we aim to describe the approach followed in CT for the annotation of multiword units (MWU). MWU in our work is a set of two or more graphic words which receive (also) an overall POS tagging because this set of words is in paradigmatic relation with one word lexical unit with the same POS.Our POS tagging confirms that most of the Modern Italian compound conjunctions at that time were not lexicalised. The order of the components is already the Modern Italian order but they can still be interrupted by occasional elements.

  • Jean-François BONNOT (Strasbourg)
    Le développement linguistique du bilingue : aspects neurophysiologiques et acquisition du lexique
    (The linguistic development of bilinguals: neurophysiological aspects and the acquisition of the lexicon)
    1997, Vol. II-2, pp. 71-80

    In this paper, the author describes some of the linguistic aspects of bilingual speakers' development and emphasizes particularly the cognitive data. In the first section, a number of neurophysiological mechanisms underlying language acquisition are sketched out. In the second section, some implications for the neurophysiology of bilingualism are examined. Lastly, the main trends of acquisition and processing of bilingual mental lexicon in children are put forward.

  • Geneviève CAELEN-HAUMONT (CNRS-Grenoble)
    Lexique, indices mélodiques et auto-interprétation
    (Lexicon, melodic indices and auto-interpretation)
    1996, Vol. I-1, pp. 25-40

    This article aims to investigate experimentally the links between prosody and the various domains of linguistics (syntax, semantics, pragmatics). Since the function of prosody is to convey the interpretation of the meaning the speaker wants to give to his utterance, the method that is proposed is to define linguistic models that can be quantified in such a way as to both yield an interpretive strategy of the linguistic contents and to predict a melodic structuring of the lexical framework. Experimental evidence shows links between on the one hand constraints related to the text and the context, and on the other the distribution of models and melodical indices, and allows us to define prosody and more in particular melody, as a subjective locus, where whatever belongs to the linguistic realm enters the realm of pragmatics.

  • Danielle CANDEL (CNRS)
    Aspects du Groupe Nominal dans l'activité définitoire des scientifiques
    (Aspects of the noun group in scientific definitions)
    2001, Vol. VI-2, pp. 17-28

    Two groups of terms have been gathered. The first one comes from a specialized text corpus, in which the terms are defined by the authors themselves. The second one comes from within the framework of institutional terminology (official terminology and neology committees), where terms have been selected by specialists themselves. Those two groups of terms therefore are repesentative of the specialties in question. Morphological characteristics of specialized terms have been emphasized; the variability of their discursive usages has also been highlighted.

  • Alain DEVEVEY (Lyon 2)
    Organisation catégorielle du lexique et maladie d'Alzheimer
    (Categorical organisation of the lexicon and Alzheimer's disease)
    2001, Vol. VI-1, pp. 89-98

    Based on recent studies that put into question the concepts of prototype and typicality, this study treats the processes of categorization by sufferers from Alzheimer's disease, in the light of two themes: clotting of the prototype into stereotype and distinction between, on the one hand, the representations of common objects developed by an individual in a very early stage of his development and, on the other hand, the socialized attainments acquired subsequently. We analyse the processes of categorization in five groups of subjects (English-speaking students, French-speaking students, sufferers from Alzheimer's disease and witnesses) paired by age, sex and level of studies. Our aim is to study two effects on the probability of categorical inclusion: the effect of constraints and categories (putting in contrast four types of categories - two "natural" ones and two "artefactual" or cultural ones), and the effect of typicality of examples, in the different groups of subjects. By this analysis, we aim to demonstrate specific behaviours shown by the group of sufferers.

  • Patrick DROUIN (Montréal, Canada)
    Identification automatique du lexique scientifique transdisciplinaire
    (Automated identification of a transdisciplinary scientific lexicon)
    2007, Vol. XII-2, pp. 45-64

    In this paper, we propose a first step leading to the description of the lexicon of scientific language by identifying a transdisciplinary scientific lexicon (TSL). The TSL is domain independent and forms a central lexical core of all domains; it is at the center of argumentation we find in scientific discourse as well as its structuring. In order to gather the transdisciplinary lexicon, we use natural language processing (NLP) tools and statistical techniques; central to our method is the calcul des spécificités (specificity measure) put forward by Lafon (1980). By using NLP tools, we want to verify if it is possible to quickly and simply complement existing lexical resources without much manual intervention. We conclude our study by exploring an observation made by Phal (1971) about collocations and scientific discourse. We focus here on V-N collocations revolving around nouns taken from our TSL.

  • Pablo GAMALLO (Lisbonne, Portugal)
    Bases lexicales et systèmes d'héritage conduits par la relation de méréonymie
    (Lexical bases and 'heritage' systems on the basis of meronymy relationships)
    2000, Vol. V-2, pp. 45-56

    The majority of lexical databases and computerized thesauri are organised on the principle of a system of lexical 'heritage' based on taxonomic relationships (IS_A). This relationship is perceived as the channel through which the lexical information is passed. We claim, however, that the transfer of information in a lexical thesaurus can also take place through other kinds of relationships. In this respect, we analyse the 'heritage mechanism' based on the mereonymic relationship COMPOSED_OF. The main object of this paper is to characterise the framework of a lexical system based on a system of mereonymic relationships, i.e. a system which will allow for a whole to inherit the information of its parts. Further, we want to demonstrate that this type os heritage allows for a model of metonymic interpretation of polysemic nouns.

  • Jonas GRANFELDT (Lund University)
    Evaluation du niveau lexical et grammatical à l'écrit en français langue étrangère : l'apport des analyses automatiques
    (Evaluation of lexical and grammatical level in writing French as a FL: how can automated analyses be of help?)
    2006, Vol. XI-1, pp. 103-117

    Is there a correlation between the grammatical developmental level and the lexical developmental level in the written production of learners of French as a foreign language ? We have applied a number of quantitative lexical and grammatical measures to 40 texts in French written by two groups of Swedish adults with different proficiency levels. All analyses were carried out using different software (among them a system wear developed by ourselves) in an attempt to demonstrate the possibilities of current automatic analyses. The results show that, even if several measures discriminate between the two independently established groups, there is no simple correlation of correlation between them. The measure of lexical sophistication was the only one showing a significant correlation with the grammatical measure used.

  • Ulrich HEID (Stuttgart, Allemagne)
    La mise à jour semi-automatique de dictionnaires : une application de l'acquisition lexicale et de la métalexicographie
    (Semi-automatic updating of dictionaries)
    2002, Vol. VII-1, pp. 53-66

    Many more dictionaries are being updated than are written from scratch. Taylor-made computational linguistic support for lexicographers should thus not only provide corpus-derived data, but, along with this, a comparison with the information given in the targeted dictionary. We are developing a system for German, which provides this kind of comparison, for a set a macro- and microstructural data. We report about the main lexicographic and computational aspects of the approach.

  • Elisabeth LINDEN (VAN DER) (Amsterdam, Pays-Bas)
    Lexique mental et apprentissage des mots
    (Mental lexicon and word learning)
    2006, Vol. XI-1, pp. 33-44

    While the study of vocabulary knowledge has been for a long time the domain of psychologists and psycholinguists, the eighties have seen a growing interest for word knowledge and word learning.. In this paper, I review shortly some results from psycholinguistic research on the mental lexicon that are relevant for applied linguistics. I further discuss a series of publications concerning factors that influence success in word learning. Finally, I report on a recent study done at the University of Amsterdam on the relative role of sound, image and context in word learning.

  • François MANIEZ (Lyon 2)
    Le repérage par traitement automatique du défigement lexical des proverbes dans la presse américaine
    (Automatic retrieval of intentionally modified proverbs in the American press)
    2000, Vol. V-2, pp. 19-32

    Reference to a well-known proverb or phrase by altering one of its components is a widespread phenomenon in the British and American press. Since such modifications can impede a non-native speaker's understanding of newspaper or magazine articles, a system that could identify them and refer learners of English as a second language to the original wording of such expressions might be useful in the conception of an on-line comprehension assistant. Using a data base of 10 500 titles from an American news magazine, we analyze the various types of modifications that come into play in the use of shared cultural references. Through the comparison of our data base with 800 English proverbs, we test various ways in which such modifications can be automatically detected.

  • Gérard PETIT (Paris 10)
    L’introuvable identité du terme technique
    (In search of the identity of technical terms)
    2001, Vol. VI-2, pp. 63-79

    The notions of term and lexical unity (LU) are marked by the theoretical paradigm (t : terminological; l linguistic) in which they are conceptualized, the latter being itself defined inside its own discipline (Terminology or Linguistics). Contrary to an idea commonly held about Terminology and terminology in Linguistics - seen as a set of terms - considered as stabilisation and classification structures for concepts, the identity of term is extremely unstable. It is dependent on the conceptualization of LU made by each discipline. Relatively to the classic theory of terms (T,t), to its reconsideration (T,l) or to its appropriation by Linguistics (L,l), the notion of term is a construct which results from more or less controlled theoretical transfers, shifts or confusions.

  • Céline POUDAT (ENST)
    Représentation et caractérisation lexicale des sciences dans Wikipédia
    (Lexical representation and categorization of science in Wikipedia)
    2007, Vol. XII-2, pp. 29-44

    The free and online encyclopaedia project Wikipedia has become in less than six years one of the most prominent commons-based peer-production example. The way the project works and evolves is now at stake for academics eager to explore auto-organized structures. Although many studies have been led on the connections between contributors, the linguistic properties of Wikipedia productions remain almost unexplored. In this article, we focus on the way sciences are represented within the project and examine the general and epistemic lexical characteristics of the articles thanks to the comparison of a set of corpora extracted from Wikipedia’s category system.

  • Patrick SAINT-DIZIER (CNRS-Toulouse)
    Quelques défis et éléments de méthode pour la construction de ressources lexicales sémantiques
    (Challenges and methods in building lexical semantic tools)
    2002, Vol. VII-1, pp. 39-51

    This paper deals with the construction of lexical semantic resources for predicates, verbs and prepositions. We first raise questions about the theoretical perspectives and the methods to be applied. Next, we describe our resources: alternations, thematic grids and lexical conceptual structure representations. We conclude by some indications on the use of these resources in applications.

  • Gema SANZ ESPINAR (Madrid, Espagne)
    Lexique des procès. Rôle textuel et rôle dans l’acquisition des langues
    (The role of verbal lexicon at text level in SL- and FL-acquisition)
    2002, Vol. VII-2, pp. 71-87

    Verbal lexicon has key functions at textual level. Competence in second language - and specially narrative competence, with which we are dealing here - can be influenced by lack of verbal lexicon, by partial acquisition or idiosyncratic acquisition of it. A textual and conceptual approach of some narrative productions in French and Spanish as first and second languages (FLM, ELM, FLE and ELE) will allow us to compare both cases in these two languages in order to make clear how oral narratives are built up at propositional level (mainly, the explicit reference to processes, space and temporality) and at suprapropositional level (cohesion and coherence). Finally, we will study the influence of real oral input in the learners' oral productions.

  • Caroline SCHAETZEN (DE) (Bruxelles, Belgique)
    Le vocabulaire des produits génériques dans la grande distribution
    (The vocabulary of generic products in commercial distribution networks)
    2001, Vol. VI-2, pp. 103-113

    The food and non-food terms from big stores deserve a thorough analysis: in today's self-service shopping, labels mentioning these denominations sell the products, together with the brand of the concern making them; second, this increasingly international terminology is currently coined or corrected with marketing and publicity specialists; last but not least, these terms include a series of vulgarized scientific ones which help understand vulgarization mechanisms.

  • Dirk SIEPMANN (Osnabrück, Allemagne)
    Les marqueurs de discours polylexicaux en français scientifique
    (Markers of polylexical discourse in scientific French)
    2007, Vol. XII-2, pp. 123-136

    Unlike two-word collocations, multi-word discourse markers have until recently suffered comparative neglect in lexicology and lexicography. The present article aims to remedy this deficiency for French. After giving an operational definition of the lexical items in question, the author proceeds to classify them by functional criteria. He concludes his article with a detailed survey of suggestors. The great frequency of this type of marker would seem to belie the assumption that academic language is free of subjectivity.

  • José SOLER (UE)
    Projets lexiques de la Commission européenne
    (Lexical projects of the European Commission)
    1997, Vol. II-1, pp. 79-81
  • Elsa SPINELLI (Nimègue, Pays-Bas)
    Resolution of liaison for lexical access in French
    2002, Vol. VII-1, pp. 83-96

    Spoken word recognition involves automatic activation of lexical candidates compatible with the perceived input. In running speech, words abut one another without intervening gaps, and syllable boundaries can mismatch with word boundaries. For instance, liaison in 'petit agneau' creates a syllable beginning with a consonant although 'agneau' begins with a vowel. In two cross-modal priming experiments we investigate how French listeners recognise words in liaison environments. These results suggest that the resolution of liaison in part depends on acoustic cues which distinguish liaison from non-liaison consonants, and in part on the availability of lexical support for a liaison interpretation.

  • Christiane STUTTERHEIM (VON) (Heidelberg, Allemagne)
    Différences translinguistiques dans la conceptualisation des événements
    (Translinguistic differences in the conceptualization of events)
    2002, Vol. VII-2, pp. 89-105

    Le lexique des procès a des fonctions clés au niveau textuel. La compétence en langue étrangère, notamment la compétence narrative, que l'on traitera ici, peut se voir influencée par le manque du lexique des procès ou par l'acquisition partielle ou idiosyncrasique de celui-ci. Une approche textuelle et conceptuelle de quelques productions narratives en français et en espagnol langues étrangères et langues maternelles (FLM, ELM, FLE et ELE) nous permettra d'opposer les deux cas dans les deux langues, afin de mettre en relief la construction des récits oraux au niveau de l'information propositionnelle explicitée (principalement, référence au domaine des procès, de la spatialité et de la temporalité), ainsi qu'au niveau suprapropositionnel (cohésion et cohérence). Enfin, nous étudierons l'influence de l'input oral réel dans les productions orales des apprenants.

  • Olga THEOPHANOUS (Montréal, Canada)
    Déviations lexicales de forme et de sens chez les apprenants de français langue étrangère
    (Lexical deviations of form and meaning in learners of French as a SL)
    2001, Vol. VI-1, pp. 107-120

    Following an empirical study, this article deals with a specific type of errors in vocabulary acquisition of French as a second language: intralingual lexical confusion. 480 English and Greek speaking learners (beginners, intermediates and advanced) of French were given a L2-L1 translation task of French words. A large number of errors revealed confusions due to formal and/or semantic similarity between the target words and other French words known by the learners. The formal and/or semantic comparison between error and target word allowed a narrower description of intralingual lexical confusion highlighting some precise sub-categories of what the author calls "lexical confusibles".

  • Philippe THOIRON (Lyon 2)
    Dénominations, définitions et génériques
    (Denomination, definition and generics)
    1998, Vol. III-2, pp. 57-70

    In our work on denomination, which is based on a multilingual comparative approach of pluri-terms naming artefacts, we have noticed that the relationship between denomination and definition is not a simple one-way system. There exists a "warping" phenomenon which appears in the definition, especially in the choice of the generic, in which it is difficult not to see the influence of the naming elements. The complementarity between denomination and definition should encourage a new terminographic approach in which the definition should take more into account information which, directly or indirectly, can be conveyed by the denomination itself. This type of definition is considered to be particularly useful in tools to be used in language engineering.

  • Agnès TUTIN (Grenoble 3)
    Autour du lexique et de la phraséologie des écrits scientifiques
    (Lexicon and phraseology of scientific texts)
    2007, Vol. XII-2, pp. 5-14
  • Ake VIBERG (Uppsala, Suède)
    Basic verbs in second language acquisition
    2002, Vol. VII-2, pp. 51-69

    Verbs have a central role in language processing but simultaneously verbs tend to represent a greater cognitive load on processing than nouns. An important characteristic of the verb lexicon is that in all languages, a small number of verbs appear to be dominant in terms of frequency. The most frequent verbs in an individual language are referred to as basic verbs.Among the basic verbs in any language, there is a set of nuclear verbs which tend to have the same basic meaning in all languages (a universaltendency). In addition, there are some basic verbs that have alanguage-specific meaning. The paper summarizes research based on a computerized learner corpus with data from projects concerned with Swedish as a second language of children and adults. The primary data were recordings of oral production carried out individually with learners at several points in time. One of the major findings was that L2 learners tended to favour nuclear verbs which wereboth over used (in terms of frequency of occurrence) and over extended (withrespect to their semantic coverage). Language-specific meanings tended to be weakly represented at early stages of L2 acquisition