Marie-Madeleine BERTUCCI (IUFM-Versailles)L’emploi du genre et du nombre par des élèves créoles de La Réunion. Approches linguistiques et perspectives didactiques
(The use of gender and number by creole students in La Reunion. Linguistic approach and didactic perspectives)2001, Vol. VI-1, pp. 75-88
This article aims at examining some linguistic dysfunctions of Creole pupils of La Reunion, via the categories of gender and number, in the particular linguistic context of diglossia. The postulate rests on the idea that variety in spelling errors hides a certain regularity. Our hypothesis tends to show that three prominent features underly the visible instability of errors: regularity, differentiation and standardization. Therefore, one expects to see a double movement of simplification and of complexification, that shows either in the absence of discrimination, or in some form of assimilation, adaptation or fixation. Dysfunctions concerning grammatical morphograms will illustrate our analysis. Finally the didactic perspectives in order to remedy these phenomena will be addressed.
Annegret BOLLÉE (Bamberg, Allemagne)Lexicographie créole : problèmes et perspectives
(Creole lexicography: problems and perspectives)2005, Vol. X-1, pp. 53-63
The present article, focussing on creoles based on Romance languages, begins with a brief historical overview of existing lexicographic inventories. The second part of the contribution is dedicated to problems of creole lexicography which are partly the same as those encountered in the description of any other language. Certain specific problems of creole lexicography are due to the fact that creoles are oral languages which only recently began to develop a written code. For this reason lexicographic inventories are often meant to fix an orthography, and they reflect a stage of elaboration of technical and scientific terms which can either be borrowed from the base language or created by means of word formation from proper creole morphemes. These problems are discussed and illustrated by examples taken from recent publications.
Arnaud CARPOORAN (Maurice)Langue créole, recensements et législation linguistique à Maurice
(Creole language, statistics and language legislation at Mauritius)2005, Vol. X-1, pp. 115-127
This article is an attempt to study the relationship between Creole language and Language law in Mauritius, bearing in mind the fact that Creole is the spoken language most widely used in Mauritius while being one of the least recognized languages both officially and institutionally. We will try to stress on the one hand, the particular choice of the implicit mode by the law-maker when it comes to pave the way to the use of Creole in official situations and, on the other hand, the frequent disparity between what the law says and what people actually do when it comes to linguistic practices.
Robert CHAUDENSON (Aix-en-Provence)Description et graphisation : le cas des créoles français
(Description and graphisation in French creoles)2005, Vol. X-1, pp. 91-102
Paradoxically, the implementation of the "Unicode" norm, which gives creators of graphic codes the possibility to use just any sign, makes it even more necessary to distinguish preliminary reflection and the decision to use a specific graphic code for languages which function without written forms. We therefore propose to make a distinction between the concepts of "graphiation" and "graphisation". The former encompasses all approaches to problems linked to assigning to a given language a written sign system wether based on social, economical, psychological and linguistic considerations. The latter includes technical solutions resulting from preliminary reflection. In other words, it is necessary to determine why one decides to create a written code for a language, prior to deciding on how it will or should be done.
Michel DEGRAFF (MIT, États-Unis)Do Creoles languages constitute an exceptional typological class ?2005, Vol. X-1, pp. 11-24
This article surveys a number of hypotheses in which Creole languages constitute a sui generis class on historical and/or typological grounds. With Haitian Creole as a bench mark, I catalogue some of the empirical and theoretical flaws in these hypotheses. The latter, which underlie much work in contemporary creolistics, have intellectual antecedents in (pseudo)-scholarly work from the 17th-century onward, including early creolists' (pre-/quasi-)Darwinian theories of Creole genesis. I conclude by sketching an alternative theory that is more consistent with Creole structures and their development.
Alain GUILLAUME (Université Quisqueya, Haïti)L'expression créole du droit : une voie pour la réduction de la fracture juridique en Haïti
(How law is expressed in creole or how to diminish the juridical differences in Haiti)2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 77-91
Haitian society is characterized by a number of dichotomies which are manifested in law in the form of an unequal bilingualism and a particular form of bijuralism. The legal integration of the Nation implies that the law be expressed in creole and that customary standards should be taken into account in written law. These measures would enrich substantive law in Haiti, though complex to implement.
Marie-Christine HAZAËL-MASSIEUX (Aix-en-Provence)L'évolution des langues créoles vers l'écriture
(Creole languages on their way to writing)1997, Vol. II-2, pp. 7-18
This article tries to define the implications of the present evolution of creoles, which are essentially oral languages, towards writing. It aims to show that proceeding to the written form is not merely a technical question, but a multi-faceted problem, due to the fact that the conditions of communication are very different in writing as compared to the oral. The development of an autonomous literature plays in this regard a determining role.
Marie-Christine HAZAËL-MASSIEUX (Aix-en-Provence)Prolégomènes à une néologie créole
(Towards a creole neology)2002, Vol. VII-1, pp. 113-121
Marie-Christine HAZAËL-MASSIEUX (Aix-en-Provence)L'écriture des créoles au début du 3e millénaire : état de la question
(The writing of French creoles at the dawn of the 3rd millennium: an inventory)2005, Vol. X-1, pp. 77-90
The attitude of native speakers of Creoles with regard to written Creoles and vis-a-vis the "standardizing" efforts of linguists is an important subject which needs to be constantly re-examined. In the face of the general trend towards the standardization of Creole graphic systems, the reaction of speakers, themselves potential writers, has changed very little. The militants, for their part, would like to see all obstacles to written Creole swiftly removed in those places where Creoles writing is not in favor. Different cases involving different countries must be taken into account in order to arrive at a better understanding of the kinds of situations in which written Creole languages develop, whatever the degree to which diglossia or even various types of multilingualism may be present.
Lambert Félix PRUDENT (La Réunion)Langue et culture créoles : création d'une discipline et construction de normes
(Creole language and cultures: creating a discipline and norms)2005, Vol. X-1, pp. 103-114
In the year 2001, the French government made the Creole languages of Guadeloupe, Guyane, Martinique and Reunion, one single "Regional Language of France". The main reason for this policy is educational and should led to results in creating one single teacher's assessment exam for that subject. Disregarding local differences, underestimating the complexity of the settling of regional linguistic norms, and blindly following the all Creole activist discourse, the French authorities launched a project that has had no significant positive results. This article leads to the conclusion that there is a need for a differentiating branch of linguistics and recommends the creation of normative commissions working in the field with a goal to implement efficient policies.
Emmanuel SCHANG (Orléans)CreolData : une base de données lexicales sur les langues créoles
(CreolData: a lexical database on creole languages)2005, Vol. X-1, pp. 65-76
This paper presents CreolData, a multilingual lexical database concerning the Portuguese-based Creole Languages of Africa. In section 2, we describe the goals of the project. Section 3 is devoted to a short description of the languages of the database. We then give an overview of XML and the standards for electronic dictionarie, and focus on the macrostructure the microstructure (sections 4, 5 and 6) Finally, we give an outlook for future developments of this project (section 7).
Albert VALDMAN (Indiana University, États-Unis)Vers la standardisation du créole haïtien
(Towards a standardisation of Haitian creole)2005, Vol. X-1, pp. 39-52
This article addresses the central issues faced by language planners in the development of a written norm for Haitian Creole: (1) selecting among geographical and sociolinguistic variants; (2) devising an autonomous, phonologically-based systematic spelling instead of an etymological one modeled on that of Standard French; (3) dealing with morphophonological alternations that are either free variants or that reflect stylistic differentiation. It does broach the issue of the preparation of a monolingual dictionary, the veritable capstone in the standardization process.
Georges Daniel VÉRONIQUE (Paris III)Interlangues françaises et créoles français
(French and French creole interlanguages)2005, Vol. X-1, pp. 25-37
This paper discusses the major role played by language learning processes in the birth of creole languages. The notions of pidgin, pidginization and creolization are examined in a language contact and SLA perspective. The evolution of the verbal system and of negation in the emergent French related creoles is compared with developmental sequences observed in French interlanguages.