Camille Roger ABOLOU (Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire)Le discours juridique en Afrique noire. Terminologie et traduction du droit spécialisé
(Juridical discourse in sub-Saharan Africa. Terminology and translation in legal matters)2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 17-31
Initially, work on translation concentrated on exploiting the capacity of African languages to express modernity. Later research in translation in sub-Saharan Africa has concentrated on legal ethnography, working on ontological systems, legal texts within which a multiplicity of sources of law are intermingled, in particular customary law, civil law and common law. These justice systems are superimposed and intertwined, giving rise to a legal disorder. The post-colonial African countries have the major challenge, apart from the one-way communication which characterises them, with what can be called interjuridicity, a zone of interference where jurisigns (borrowings and legal calques) appear. The concept of interjuridicity sheds light on the problems of legal translation in sub-Saharan Africa which can be solved by applying various heuristic approaches.
David BANKS (Brest)Analyse des discours spécialisés : le domaine anglais
(Analyses of specialized discourse: the case of English)2001, Vol. VI-2, pp. 7-16
In the area of English studies, discourse analysis is carried out mainly within the framework of a functional theory. The best known of these theories is Systemic Functional Linguistics. Nevertheless, in France, the « théories de l'énonciation » have a role to play. Many studies take as their starting point the notion of genre, as defined by Swales. The contribution of non-verbal elements to a text constitutes a fertile area of research. Discourse analysis is not restricted to contemporary texts and diachronic studies have been carried out, notably in the area of scientific discourse. In addition to syntactic and semantic studies, there is work from a sociolinguistic point of view. Critical Discourse Analysis and Appraisal Theory are approaches that take the subjectivity of the analyst into account. Among the applications of discourse analysis in France, the attempt to help the French researcher publish in an international context is particularly important.
Anna GIACALONE RAMAT (Pavie, Italie)L'emploi des connecteurs : però correspond-il toujours à mais ?
(The use of connectors: is però always equivalent to mais?)2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 57-74
Italian grammars written for French speakers do not pay much attention to però and touch very briefly upon its difference with respect to ma. The present study is based upon a detailed analysis of French translation equivalents of però in Veronesi's novel Caos calmo (2005) and draws upon Italian oral data from the LIP corpus (1993). Results of this study show how the grammars considered fail to offer clear indications concerning the freedom of position inside the sentence and the stronger value of però. Furthermore, the introduction of the diachronic dimension shows the gradual development of contrast relations out of temporal and causal lexical sources along paths already established for the processes of grammaticalization and highlights the present-day distribution in both languages.
Philippe GRÉCIANO (Grenoble)Kampf gegen den Terrorismus. Rechtssprache im (Kon)Text
(The war on terrorism and its demands on the legal system)2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 63-76
Since September 11 2001 the world has been faced with challenges to the defence of nations and the security of their citizens, leading to hitherto unused laws, policies and strategies to counter the terrorist threat. This is a major challenge: to reconcile security needs with the demands of law, and respecting citizens' liberty, their language, their culture and their legitimate aspirations. In this paper, antiterrorist discourse will first be studied, its terms and definitions examined, as well as the types of texts used and the way they are formulated in language. Then the cross-disciplinary approach is used to produce practical methods to ascertain the state of terrorist threat in its international dimension, to achieve a fine grained but global understanding of the phenomenon for the future.
Jean-Claude GÉMAR (Montréal, Canada)Aux sources de la "jurilinguistique" : texte juridique, langues et cultures
("Jurilinguistics" and its sources: the juridical text, languages and cultures)2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 9-16
Adelaida HERMOSO MELLADO (Séville, Espagne)Etude des adverbes Décidément / Decididamente... et quelques autres
(The adverbs Décidément / Decididamente and some others)2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 9-23
The main goal of this study is to show through the comparative study of the adjuncts décidément and decididamente (and some others) in French and Spanish respectively that a) morphological similarity between two languages is far from being a reliable criterion for translation, as exemplified in: Décidément, quel désastre ! / ¡Desde luego! *¡Decididamente!, ¡Qué desastre! ('It's definitely a disaster!'); b) using elementatry linguistic properties leads to better results. In addition to French décidément, which is the core of the debate, some others cases will also be considered like définitivement, naturellement, incontestablement, indubitablement vs desde luego, decididamente, naturalmente and sin duda. To avoid making arbitrary choices, a good translation of connectives and discursive markers must establish and apply very strict operating rules, as regards syntax and semantics of course, but also contextual and cotextual characteristics.
Isabelle PIEROZAK (Aix-en-Provence)Approche sociolinguistique des pratiques discursives sur Internet: « ge fé dais fotes si je voeux »
(Sociolinguistic approach of French writing on internet: "ge fé dais fotes si je voeux")2000, Vol. V-1, pp. 89-104
The frequent occurrence of electronic conversations (chats) on channels devoted to this activity highlights the existence of ordinary language uses having the peculiarity of being simultaneously current and written and non confidential. This phenomenon is studied here from the point of view of identity, and according to dual and complementary approaches. These link the variety of the (ortho)graphical practices observed to the sociolinguistic representations which organize them at identity level. It appears that the chatters' discursive practices, in the absence of any other way to do it, become the only way to bring to existence for the interlocutors extralinguistic determinants pertaining to the chat, this process being underlied by linguistic representations.
Maria SVENSSON (Uppsala, Suède)Marqueurs corrélatifs en français et en suédois : l'exemple de non seulement... mais et inte bara... utan
(Correlational markers in French and Swedish: the example of non seulement... mais and inte bara... utan)2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 41-56
We will present a study of the French correlative marker non seulement... mais in comparison to inte bara... utan in Swedish. On the basis of a bilingual corpus of original texts in the two languages and translations in the two directions, we will show how these markers contribute to the organization of discourse in specialized literature in the humanities. Our analysis will focus on the formal, contextual, semantic and argumentative similarities and differences between non seulement... mais and inte bara... utan. The contrastive perspective will allow a description of differences and similarities between the languages, as well as point out the difficulties of translation. Furthermore, it will contribute to the description of the function of these correlative markers in each language.