Hanne-Leeth ANDERSEN (Århus, Danemark)L'application du Cadre européen commun de référence dans les nouveaux programmes de français au Danemark
(The application of Common European Framework of Reference for Languages in the new programmes of French in Denmark)2006, Vol. XI-1, pp. 45-60
Recently we have been witnessing a didactic evolution in language teaching in Denmark which is quite manifest in the teaching of French. This evolution is the result of adoption of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and a slow step towards a more communicative teaching with clearer goals ensuring a progression and a more pronounced awareness of this progression in acquisition. This evolution is based on research in which begins to influence more directly the national teaching programmes. The present article analyses the programmes and the initiatives in primary and secondary school teaching and in teacher education, and treats some problems which remain to be solved (choices of grammatical description and target language, integration of culture in language teaching).
Galina BOUBNOVA (Moscou, Russie)Correction phonétique : enseignement du français / du russe à des apprenants russophones / francophones
(Phonetic correctness: the case of the teaching of French to Russophone learners and Russian to French learners)2006, Vol. XI-1, pp. 7-19
In learning the phonetics of a foreign language an adult student takes in new sounds still sustaining the definitive influence of the phonological categorization of his or her mother tongue. In Russia phonetic correction mainly makes use of such methods as visual display as well as tactile and motive drills aimed at developing articulation. By making pronunciation subordinate to myoneural control that procedure virtually disregards the prosodic component of the speech. Teaching foreign language prosody as presented in this article is based on the fact that a student cannot only hear but also see the appropriate audio signal. The use of the visual channel enhances work on the prosody of a language to be studied both at the stage of its perception and at the stage of production.
Angela CHAMBERS (Limerick, Irlande)L'apprentissage de l'écriture en langue seconde à l'aide d'un corpus spécialisé
(Learning Second Language Written Expression with the Aid of a Specialised Corpus)2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 9-20
Originally created to provide data for linguistic research, corpora are increasingly attracting the attention of researchers in applied linguistics. This study raises and discusses a number of issues concerning the consultation of a specialised corpus of research articles in French by teachers and writers (in both cases non-native speakers of French), writing essays, theses and research articles. A one-million word corpus of research articles in French (Chambers & Le Baron 2007) will be used as an example. After examining issues relating to the creation of the corpus and giving a brief account of publications on the use of corpora as a resource for writing, pedagogic applications of the corpus will be discussed, taking the use of the first person plural, nous, as an example. This will enable us to assess the potential of specialised corpora in language learning and teaching in general and, more particularly, in the learning and teaching of writing.
Maria CHINI (Pavie, Italie)Ordres marqués et perspective du locuteur en italien L2
(Marked orders in the acquisition of general and language specific structures in Italian as L2)2002, Vol. VII-2, pp. 107-127
The paper deals with the acquisition and use of marked orders in postbasic German learners of Italian, mainly in a functional and textual perspective. We consider that grammar (in the case in point, the domain of information structure rules) is affected both by general pragmatic principles and by language-specific rules that the learner has to learn together with the target language. A cross-sectional analysis and a short longitudinal sketch reveal an acquisitional sequence of marked orders beginning with presentative structures, going on with cleft sentences and, rather late, dislocations. Results are discussed with regard to the impact of different factors (general and language-specific information organisation principles, syntactic complexity, source language, text type, etc. ).
Andrew D. COHEN (Minneapolis, États-Unis)The Use of Translation Strategies in Coping with Language Learning Difficulties2001, Vol. VI-1, pp. 99-105
Drawing on learner verbal report, this paper describes ways in which verbal report data reflecting the use of mental and written translation strategies have provided insights into language learning and language use. The paper characterizes the use of mental translation strategies, considers the choice between mental and written translation, and then deals with translation strategies in the different modalities.
Piet DESMET (Lille 3)L'enseignement/apprentissage des langues à l'ère du numérique : tendances récentes et défis
(Teaching and learning languages in the digital era: recent tendencies and challenges)2006, Vol. XI-1, pp. 119-138
Due to the rise of the digital era, ICT has become one of the basic teaching tools of any language teacher and the language classroom, or at least part of it, has turned into a digital environment. In this contribution, we comment on seven tendencies which have emerged recently in the domain of computer assisted language learning (CALL). Each tendency is illustrated through a selection of recent projects realized within our research group ALT, Research Center on CALL.
Sylvain DETEY (Tokyo, Japon)Les apprenants de français face aux normes de prononciation : quelle(s) entrée(s) pour quelle(s) sortie(s) ?
(Learners of French and pronunciation norms in the FL : what input do we need to reach what results)2012, Vol. XVII-1, pp. 81-96
In the field of French language education, the developments of corpus linguistics have spurred a reassessment of the importance of pedagogical norms and linguistic variation in teaching curricula. In this article, we focus on the phonetic-phonological dimension of the teaching/learning process and, after a short glance at pronunciation models in French, we examine the impact of sociolinguistic descriptions of varieties of French on pronunciation education. Referring to the notions of 'errors' and 'accents' among non-native speakers, we point out the need for broad and systematic corpus-based studies, comparable with native databases. Finally, we introduce the InterPhonologie du français contemporain project and look at the notion of non-native norms, both from theoretical and applied perspectives.
Jean-Marc DEWAELE (Londres, Grande-Bretagne)L'acquisition de la compétence sociopragmatique en langue étrangère
(Acquisition of sociopragmatic competence in a foreign language)2002, Vol. VII-2, pp. 129-143
The present study offers an overview of research on the acquisition of sociopragmatic competence in a foreign language. Our starting point is the "hardware", i.e. the bilingual brain and the storage of different types of pragmatic and linguistic information in it. We then adopt a teacher's perpective by looking at how sociopragmatic aspects of the target language are integrated in language courses and language classes. We go on to consider a number of studies on the teaching, the acquisition and the use of sociolinguistic and pragmatic competence in the target language. A number of studies on the teaching, the acquisition and the use of sociolinguistic and pragmatic competence in the target language are then considered. Theoretical and didactical implications are presented in the final part of the study.
Martine DREYFUS (Montpellier 3)Enseignement/apprentissage du français en Afrique : bilan et évolutions en 40 années de recherches
(Teaching and learning of French in Africa: balance and development in 40 years of research)2006, Vol. XI-1, pp. 73-84
This paper shows how research on variation in spoken French and studies on languages in contact in West Africa have changed attitudes towards the French language and its teaching. There has been an ever increasing amount of research interest in acquisition of French in Africa over the last years and these studies might also have changed attitudes and perceptions towards learning French. The current research is focused on the analysis of classroom interactions. Both the constitution of a large corpus on acquisition and learning of French and the prospects for a revival or change in teaching methods and training are related here.
Marie-Laure ELALOUF (Cergy-Pontoise)Le traitement des connecteurs dans les Instructions officielles et les manuels (français L1 / anglais L2)
(Connectors in French ministerial directives and textbooks (French L1/English L2))2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 121-140
In French L1 syllabuses, the term connecteur is defined according to semantic criteria and covering invariable words, and even syntagms commuting with adverbial phrases. They are given in lists and thus cannot be really used to interpret L1 texts.L2 learners are not made aware of the functioning of these heterogeneous L2 units, which makes their task even more arduous. The L1 filter compounded by limited awareness of the functioning of L1 thus leads to one-to-one relations that hinder L2 skills especially when items learnt by rote are artificially inserted instead of being used to connect ideas. A unified and contrastive grammatical terminology would allow an efficient metalinguistic awareness.
Danièle FLAMENT-BOISTRANCOURT (Paris X-Nanterre)Présentation : Enseignement/apprentissages des langues à l'aube du XXIe siècle : enjeux et tendances
(Learning/acquiring foreign languages: new tendencies)2006, Vol. XI-1, pp. 5-6
Anne-Laure FOUCHER (Clermont-Ferrand)Clavardage, forum et macro-tâche pour l'apprentissage du FLE : quelle(s) articulation(s) possible(s) pour quels apports ?
(Chats, face-to-face activities and macro-tasks in learning French as FL : the contribution of each of these means)2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 155-172
Ce texte est une contribution à la discussion des apports de la Communication Médiatisée par Ordinateur (CMO) à l'apprentissage de la langue étrangère. Nous appuyant sur la mise en place d'un dispositif mixte d'apprentissage du Français Langue Etrangère (FLE) en direction d'apprenants chypriotes de niveau A2, nous analysons plus particulièrement les potentialités de l'articulation pédagogique du présentiel, des clavardages et des forums pour la réalisation d'une macro-tâche écrite en langue étrangère. A partir des données issues des résultats de questionnaires administrés aux apprenants et aux tuteurs et de leurs interactions synchrones et asynchrones, nous détaillons comment l'accompagnement « mixte » est ressenti et mis en actes langagiers par les deux parties, tant sur le plan de la conduite de la macro-tâche que sur le plan des outils utilisés.
Rita FRANCESCHINI (Sarrebruck, Allemagne)Weshalb brauchen Linguistien mehrsprachige Sprecher? / Pourquoi les linguistes ont-ils besoin de locuteurs plurilingues ?
(Why do linguists need multilingual speakers?)2004, Vol. IX-2, pp. 105-124
In light of the vast number of publications dedicated to the different aspects of multilingualism, one might wonder whether the analyses carried out so far have had an impact on the development of the theory of language in general. Are they merely the latest trend (due to intelligible and undisputable social reasons) or rather a real challenge for linguistics? This article first examines the terminology and then tries to answer these questions with eleven theses. It also highlights the importance of developing a linguistic theory based on multilingualism and the significance of the applied concepts for the analysis regarding the acquisition of a second (or even a third or fourth) language. The cognitive bases as well as the contemporary or separate handling of various languages on the mental level are discussed.
Jeannine GERBAULT (Bordeaux)TIC : panorama des espaces d'interaction et de rétroaction pour l'apprentissage de l'écriture en langue étrangère
(ICT: A Panorama of Spaces of Interaction and Feedback for the Learning of Written Expression in a Foreign Language)2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 37-52
Today, the reflection about the potential of ICT for language learning and teaching unfolds in several directions. To the contribution of multimodality in learning environments is now added that of the new devices for communication and collaboration. We examine these contributions in a systematic manner in relation to the specific position of the foreign language (L2) writer as well as to his/her activity and production. After clarification of the concepts of writing and of learning how to write, and of our definitions of a few terms, I present the key concepts and factors that I believe should be taken into account in analyzing the ICT resources supporting the learning of L2 writing, then I present the devices themselves and their functionalities, in order to establish how they meet the criteria that have been outlined.
Anna GIACALONE RAMAT (Pavie, Italie)L'emploi des connecteurs : però correspond-il toujours à mais ?
(The use of connectors: is però always equivalent to mais?)2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 57-74
Italian grammars written for French speakers do not pay much attention to però and touch very briefly upon its difference with respect to ma. The present study is based upon a detailed analysis of French translation equivalents of però in Veronesi's novel Caos calmo (2005) and draws upon Italian oral data from the LIP corpus (1993). Results of this study show how the grammars considered fail to offer clear indications concerning the freedom of position inside the sentence and the stronger value of però. Furthermore, the introduction of the diachronic dimension shows the gradual development of contrast relations out of temporal and causal lexical sources along paths already established for the processes of grammaticalization and highlights the present-day distribution in both languages.
Lucie GOURNAY (Paris-Est Créteil)Connecteurs et altérités dans une perspective contrastive français-anglais
(Connectors and the expression of contrast: a French-English comparative study)2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 75-89
This paper focuses on the contribution supplied by a cross-linguistic approach of the diversity of discourse connectives. It includes two case-studies, which aim at implementations in the lexicological and teaching fields: first, the non equivalence of mais / but when sentence-initial mais does not mark an argumentative opposition; second, false cognates actually / actuellement which hardly ever correspond. These two complementary case-studies illustrate two cases of non direct translation.
Jonas GRANFELDT (Lund University)Evaluation du niveau lexical et grammatical à l'écrit en français langue étrangère : l'apport des analyses automatiques
(Evaluation of lexical and grammatical level in writing French as a FL: how can automated analyses be of help?)2006, Vol. XI-1, pp. 103-117
Is there a correlation between the grammatical developmental level and the lexical developmental level in the written production of learners of French as a foreign language ? We have applied a number of quantitative lexical and grammatical measures to 40 texts in French written by two groups of Swedish adults with different proficiency levels. All analyses were carried out using different software (among them a system wear developed by ourselves) in an attempt to demonstrate the possibilities of current automatic analyses. The results show that, even if several measures discriminate between the two independently established groups, there is no simple correlation of correlation between them. The measure of lexical sophistication was the only one showing a significant correlation with the grammatical measure used.
Peter GRIGGS (Lyon 2)La dimension cognitive dans l'apprentissage des langues étrangères
(The cognitive dimension in learning foreign languages)2002, Vol. VII-2, pp. 17-29
The aim of this article is to show the importance of basing foreign language teaching pedagogy on a cognitive theory of learning. The article draws on John Anderson's theory of learning and is illustrated by two longitudinal studies. Learning is seen to involve two main stages :at the initial stage a procedural rule giving a specific form to a function is constructed from declarative knowledge from different sources using general problem-solving procedures ; a second phase entails the automatisation of the procedural rule and its gradual modification through processes of generalisation and discrimination. An analysis of classroom practice leads us next to re-focus the problem of instructed language learning on the compatibility between the aims of the teacher, the cognitive activity of the learner and his communicative performance and needs in the target language.
Ulrich HEID (Stuttgart, Allemagne)La mise à jour semi-automatique de dictionnaires : une application de l'acquisition lexicale et de la métalexicographie
(Semi-automatic updating of dictionaries)2002, Vol. VII-1, pp. 53-66
Many more dictionaries are being updated than are written from scratch. Taylor-made computational linguistic support for lexicographers should thus not only provide corpus-derived data, but, along with this, a comparison with the information given in the targeted dictionary. We are developing a system for German, which provides this kind of comparison, for a set a macro- and microstructural data. We report about the main lexicographic and computational aspects of the approach.
Adelaida HERMOSO MELLADO (Séville, Espagne)Etude des adverbes Décidément / Decididamente... et quelques autres
(The adverbs Décidément / Decididamente and some others)2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 9-23
The main goal of this study is to show through the comparative study of the adjuncts décidément and decididamente (and some others) in French and Spanish respectively that a) morphological similarity between two languages is far from being a reliable criterion for translation, as exemplified in: Décidément, quel désastre ! / ¡Desde luego! *¡Decididamente!, ¡Qué desastre! ('It's definitely a disaster!'); b) using elementatry linguistic properties leads to better results. In addition to French décidément, which is the core of the debate, some others cases will also be considered like définitivement, naturellement, incontestablement, indubitablement vs desde luego, decididamente, naturalmente and sin duda. To avoid making arbitrary choices, a good translation of connectives and discursive markers must establish and apply very strict operating rules, as regards syntax and semantics of course, but also contextual and cotextual characteristics.
Martin HOWARD (Cork, Irlande)Les interrelations entre les facteurs contextuels contraignant l'emploi variable des temps du passé. Une étude d'apprenants avancés du français
(Interaction between contextual factors and variation in the use of past tenses by anglophone learners of French)2002, Vol. VII-2, pp. 31-42
Given the range of linguistic factors which have previously been proposed as constraints on the linguistic variation characterising the expression of past time by the second language learner, it is difficult to pinpoint which single factor is genuinely at work behind this phenomenon in learner language. In an attempt to distinguish between the effects of such multiple factors in anglophone advanced learners of French, this paper presents quantitative evidence which suggests that no single factor outweighs another. Rather, each factor 'interacts' with every other, in such a way that the causes of that variation are not singular but indeed multiple.
Marjan KRAFFT-GROOT (Lille 3)Eurorégions et enseignement des langues : le cas du néerlandais dans le Nord/Pas-de-Calais
(Euroregions and language teaching: the case of Dutch in Northern France)2006, Vol. XI-1, pp. 61-71
The development of Dutch in the North of France over the centuries and the teaching of this language are closely linked. Because of a near lack of a language policy for Dutch in the North of France, the number of learners of Dutch in that area remains very low. Moreover, the common history of the three countries involved (France, Belgium and the Netherlands) is not perceived in the same way. That is why the teacher of Dutch L2 in the North of France has to put the languages he teaches in a historical and cultural context, without giving any personal judgement. The learner of Dutch in the North of France has to prepare himself to co-operate with his neighbour across the border. Only such an approach and an adequate economic policy relative to the importance of learning Dutch will allow the teaching of Dutch to take off in the North of France.
Eva LARSSON RINGQVIST (Wäxjö, Suède)Les constructions interrogatives dans le français des apprenants suédois
(Interrogative constructions with Swedish learners of French)1997, Vol. II-2, pp. 81-94
The present article reflects an ongoing research project on the grammar and pragmatics of interrogative constructions in French. The perspective is that of second language acquisition with advanced learners. The aim of the article is to show that the use of a particular interrogative construction in French, which in the language of native speakers is governed by restrictions at different levels, is, in the case of learners, characterized by an imperfect knowledge of these restrictions and by the necessity to rely on specific production strategies.
Chantal LIBERT (Paris X-Nanterre)Formations en langues en entreprise à grande échelle : une réponse de type industriel
(In-company language training on a large scale)2006, Vol. XI-1, pp. 85-102
We intend to describe the manner in which a French company, needing to internationalise rapidly, redefined its language policy and its approach to language training. A new English-language training programme was devised, complete with a quality control system. The need to train large numbers, 18000 people in this case, necessitated an industrial approach, previously unheard of in training.
Elisabeth LINDEN (VAN DER) (Amsterdam, Pays-Bas)Lexique mental et apprentissage des mots
(Mental lexicon and word learning)2006, Vol. XI-1, pp. 33-44
While the study of vocabulary knowledge has been for a long time the domain of psychologists and psycholinguists, the eighties have seen a growing interest for word knowledge and word learning.. In this paper, I review shortly some results from psycholinguistic research on the mental lexicon that are relevant for applied linguistics. I further discuss a series of publications concerning factors that influence success in word learning. Finally, I report on a recent study done at the University of Amsterdam on the relative role of sound, image and context in word learning.
Johan F. MATTER (Amsterdam, Pays-Bas)La prononciation authentique en langue étrangère : un problème négligé
(Authentic pronunciation in a Foreign Language: a neglected problem)2006, Vol. XI-1, pp. 21-32
This article addresses the problem why authentic pronunciation in a foreign language, contrary to other aptitudes in that same language, is so difficult, if not altogether impossible, to achieve. The problem is addressed from different theoretical perspectives: psycholinguistics, physiology and psychology. The approach by Guiora seems so far the most complete and the most promising. The problem of the necessity or the desirability of authentic pronunciation from a teaching point of view is not addressed. The article finishes on the question whether in the global village in which we live, the role of authentic pronunciation will not necessarily change in nature.
Marie J. MYERS (Kingston, Canada)Development of strategies in the second language development2001, Vol. VI-1, pp. 137-144
In this paper we analyse the decoding strategies of two female foreign students in engineering programs in order to uncover best practices. The students were asked to note language items causing difficulties and the different strategies used to arrive at the meaning while using a dictionary. We recommend scaffolding activities to enable these students to bridge the language gap and fully benefit from their program of studies.
Edith NICOLAS (CNRS)L'enseignement de langues en voie de disparition : le cas australien
(Teaching disappearing languages: the case of Australia)2000, Vol. V-1, pp. 61-69
Numerous initiatives are currently underway in Australia to try to prevent the dramatic loss of traditional Aboriginal languages. Teaching these languages at school is one of them. However, this process of language revival raises issues that go beyond the pedagogical framework: Is there still enough data available to save all the languages? Are there enough trained staff to provide quality teaching? Following a general presentation of these issues, I account of my own endeavour to produce a teacher's guide of Bardi, an Aboriginal language of Western Australia. Although no one doubts the benefits of saving endangered languages, the issues that crop up once "in the field" are not the only ones that might have been expected.
Ide O'SULLIVAN (Limerick, Irlande)Using corpora to enhance learners' academic writing skills in French2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 21-35
Reporting the work of others and appropriate reference to other texts is essential for academic writers. Acceptance into the academic discourse community is subject to mastery of citation techniques, yet students continue to struggle with such practices throughout their tertiary education, particularly non-native speakers of a language. Learners are often unaware of the mechanisms available to them for reporting, for instance, the relationship between reporting verbs and evaluation and, therefore, fail to locate their position in relation to the work of the cited author. This paper explores the use of academic text corpora in French as a means of enhancing language learners' academic writing skills, most notably as a means of enhancing their citation practices in French. It is argued that equipping L2 writers with such skills allows them to express an appropriate stance and put forth more convincing arguments. The conclusion suggests that corpus consultation literacy has an important role to play in the development of learners' written production and that academic text corpora are a valuable resource for access to the specialised language and textual organisation of academic discourse communities.
Simona PEKAREK DOEHLER (Neuchâtel, Suisse)« CA for SLA » : Analyse conversationnelle et recherche sur l’acquisition des langues
("CA for SLA": Conversational analysis and language acquisition research)2006, Vol. XI-2, pp. 123-137
This article presents the line of research that has recently come to be called CA for SLA - conversation analysis for second language acquisition. In a first step, roots of CA for SLA in ethnomethodology and in the classical CA work are sketched. In a second step, key-concepts and methodological underpinnings are discussed, which radically challenge received conceptions of language and language learning. In a third step, the major research themes are presented. The article concludes with a brief note on practical implications of the findings as well as the (mainly methodological) challenges the field is currently confronting.
Gema SANZ ESPINAR (Madrid, Espagne)Lexique des procès. Rôle textuel et rôle dans l’acquisition des langues
(The role of verbal lexicon at text level in SL- and FL-acquisition)2002, Vol. VII-2, pp. 71-87
Verbal lexicon has key functions at textual level. Competence in second language - and specially narrative competence, with which we are dealing here - can be influenced by lack of verbal lexicon, by partial acquisition or idiosyncratic acquisition of it. A textual and conceptual approach of some narrative productions in French and Spanish as first and second languages (FLM, ELM, FLE and ELE) will allow us to compare both cases in these two languages in order to make clear how oral narratives are built up at propositional level (mainly, the explicit reference to processes, space and temporality) and at suprapropositional level (cohesion and coherence). Finally, we will study the influence of real oral input in the learners' oral productions.
Suzanne SCHLYTER (Lund, Suède)Télicité, passé composé et types de discours dans l’acquisition du français langue étrangère
(Telicity, past tense and types of discourse in acquiring French as an foreign language)1996, Vol. I-1, pp. 107-118
This article discusses a study of the acquisition of past tenses in French, more in particular that of the "passé composé" by a number of non-guided learners of French having Swedish as their native language. Results of the study show that, contrary to the "aspectual" thesis as put forward by Andersen, the passé composé is used rather rapidly and widely to refer to the past, with verbs of different semantic types.
Paul SEEDHOUSE (Newcastle upon Tyne, Grande-Bretagne)Interaction in Second Language Classrooms2006, Vol. XI-2, pp. 111-122
Interest in Conversation Analysis (CA) and its possible applications in the fields of language learning and language teaching has grown considerably over the last five years. The article therefore attempts to synthesise the current state of the research and identify the issues and problems that have arisen and those areas which are suitable for further research. This article focuses on language classroom interaction and on teaching languages for specific purposes. It also discusses the relationship between CA and Applied Linguistics and examines the complex issue of what CA can contribute to the study of 'learning'. The issues are illustrated by an example of a CA analysis of language learning processes. The article concludes by considering possible future directions for research.
Christiane STUTTERHEIM (VON) (Heidelberg, Allemagne)Différences translinguistiques dans la conceptualisation des événements
(Translinguistic differences in the conceptualization of events)2002, Vol. VII-2, pp. 89-105
Le lexique des procès a des fonctions clés au niveau textuel. La compétence en langue étrangère, notamment la compétence narrative, que l'on traitera ici, peut se voir influencée par le manque du lexique des procès ou par l'acquisition partielle ou idiosyncrasique de celui-ci. Une approche textuelle et conceptuelle de quelques productions narratives en français et en espagnol langues étrangères et langues maternelles (FLM, ELM, FLE et ELE) nous permettra d'opposer les deux cas dans les deux langues, afin de mettre en relief la construction des récits oraux au niveau de l'information propositionnelle explicitée (principalement, référence au domaine des procès, de la spatialité et de la temporalité), ainsi qu'au niveau suprapropositionnel (cohésion et cohérence). Enfin, nous étudierons l'influence de l'input oral réel dans les productions orales des apprenants.
Ake VIBERG (Uppsala, Suède)Basic verbs in second language acquisition2002, Vol. VII-2, pp. 51-69
Verbs have a central role in language processing but simultaneously verbs tend to represent a greater cognitive load on processing than nouns. An important characteristic of the verb lexicon is that in all languages, a small number of verbs appear to be dominant in terms of frequency. The most frequent verbs in an individual language are referred to as basic verbs.Among the basic verbs in any language, there is a set of nuclear verbs which tend to have the same basic meaning in all languages (a universaltendency). In addition, there are some basic verbs that have alanguage-specific meaning. The paper summarizes research based on a computerized learner corpus with data from projects concerned with Swedish as a second language of children and adults. The primary data were recordings of oral production carried out individually with learners at several points in time. One of the major findings was that L2 learners tended to favour nuclear verbs which wereboth over used (in terms of frequency of occurrence) and over extended (withrespect to their semantic coverage). Language-specific meanings tended to be weakly represented at early stages of L2 acquisition
Sunniva WHITTAKER (Bergen, Norvège)La correspondance commerciale : apprentissage de stratégies discursives en langue étrangère
(Commercial correspondence: learning discursive strategies in a foreign language)2001, Vol. VI-2, pp. 95-102
This article focusses on the acquisition of discourse strategies by foreign students learning French. The study is based on a corpus of business letters written by Norwegian students. Our aim is to demonstrate how many of the mistakes that occur in this particular genre are due to the fact that even advanced students tend to misinterpret discourse contexts and as a consequence, fail to choose the correct discours strategy. Whereas grammatical mistakes will be considered by the addressee as being due to a poor command of the language and therefore easily forgiven, a bad choice of discourse strategy will often be interpreted as a manifestation of impoliteness or servility.
Ewa WIBERG (Lund, Suède)Reference to past and verticalization in advanced NNSs dialogues2002, Vol. VII-2, pp. 43-50
The present work concerns the use of past reference and the possible connection between verticalization and syntactic complexity in advanced Italian interlanguage in dialogues with Swedish university students. Although the NNSs' (nonnative speakers) have reached a certain syntactic complexity and refer to the past in a way similar to that of native speakers of the target language, their fluency of speech is less advanced. The students therefore recur to scaffolding and verticalize their information about past events, relying on the proficient interlocutor's interaction. It is proposed that the above mentioned discrepancy might be due to different language processing skills utilized. Native speakers have access to procedural knowledge that is required in quick speech, while the acquisitional stages seem to use knowledge that is stored in long-term memory, that is declarative knowledge. Through exposure to language the NNSs' access to on-line speech production becomes more rapid and the procedural knowledge increases. Consequently it is important to sort out different language skills when defining the advanced levels.
Erlernen von Fremdsprachen