Bisher erschienene Hefte

2019-1L'évaluation au coeur des recherches actuelles
(Evaluation at the heart of current researches)
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  • Présentation
    pp. 5-6
  • Marie DURU-BELLAT (IEP Paris - Université de Bourgogne Franche Comté)
    Evaluations, mesures ou classements ? A propos des enquêtes PISA
    pp. 7-19

    Launched at the beginning of the 21rst century, PISA surveys (Programme for international student assessment) whose have been a part of a specific European context, whose purpose is to establish a European policy in the education field, and are characterized by the development of a soft governance through benchmarking, that is a supposed suggestive one only, based on comparative indicators, supposed to foster a sound emulation. After having rapidly described this context, the paper will recall the main technical characteristics of these surveys, before developing the following discussion: can they claim to make up perfect tools for international comparisons of educational systems, and/or an efficient lever for some changes or policies concerning these systems?

  • Christine BARATS (Université Paris Descartes)
    A propos de la médiatisation du classement de Shanghai : l'apport de l'analyse du discours
    pp. 21-36

    The importance given to the so-called Shanghai ranking invites to examine the discursive characteristics of its media coverage in France. This article examines the use of the concessive movement in the case of its media coverage. The media coverage analysis, based on more than one million hits press corpora, made it possible to objectify one of the salient dicursive features of its diffusion: the importance of the concession which neutralizes counter-discours. In a context of reforms in higher education and research and discourse on evaluation and academic excellence, the analysis of the press dicourse showed that the concessive movement has contributed to the dissemination of this instrument of judgment and its naturalization.

  • Annick FAGNANT & Isabelle DEMONTY (Université de Liège)
    L’évaluation : une question centrale à propos des connaissances pédagogiques de contenu
    pp. 37-51

    Introduced in the 1980s, the concept of content pedagogical knowledge (PCK) has grown significantly in the field of mathematics in the next decades. From the outset, PCK assessment has attracted the attention of researchers. After reminding the origin of the concept, two assessment approaches (static vs dynamic) of PCK are put into perspective. Given the feature of preschool, PCK assessment of teachers practicing at this level is developed in the second part of the paper. Finally we will see that the question of PCK is intrinsically linked to that of teachers' professional development. In this domain, recent research opens new and interesting perspectives, especially in the field of assessment.

  • Aude SEURRAT (Université Paris 13)
    Evaluation de l'efficacité ou mesure de la satisfaction dans la formation professionnelle courte ?
    pp. 53-66

    This article questions the forms, modalities and issues in short vocational training. The evaluation is seen as both the outcome of training and the upstream direction of its implementation: it is both the purpose and the genesis of the action. Presented as a modality of rationalization for performance optimization, evaluation is particularly grappling with industrialization issues. As an addition to training professionals, evaluation guides the way actors act and think about their action in organizations. Equipped and instrumented, it finally involves a fine-tuned approach to mediations and, first and foremost, to the computerized tools that give it form.

  • Catherine BÉDUWÉ, Magali DANNER & Jean-François GIRET (TSM Research - Université de Toulouse Capitole / IREDU - Université de Bourgogne Franche Comté)
    L’évaluation des formations professionnelles de l'enseignement supérieur à l’aune de leurs résultats d’insertion
    pp. 67-80

    This article presents three important dimensions to consider when analyzing the professional integration performance of professional graduates: the diversity and professionalization nature of young people's pathways upstream of their diploma, the selectivity of professional education courses and the types of labor market covered by these degrees. Although not related to the quality of the education provided, these three dimensions can explain much of the "good results" of a professional degree. This leads us to be very cautious about the evaluation of a professional degree through its insertion performance.

  • Yves BESTGEN (Université Catholique de Louvain)
    Evaluation de textes en anglais langue étrangère et séries phraséologiques : comparaison de deux procédures automatiques librement accessibles
    pp. 81-94

    When automatically evaluating the quality of a text written in a foreign language, phraseological series are frequently neglected while their mastery is a major component of learning. Recently, two automatic systems capable of taking them into account in English have been made freely available: the COCA Parser and TAALES. The study evaluates the effectiveness and utility of these systems by applying them to two sets of learner texts. While both systems proved to be relatively effective, only the COCA Parser was able to learn a predictive model on one dataset and successfully apply it to another. It is also the only one of the two systems that produces a file allowing a qualitative analysis of the evaluated texts.

    De l’évaluation et ses ressources en traitement automatique des langues
    pp. 95-109

    For thirty years, natural language processing has given more and more importance to machine learning, resulting in technological progress for an ever increasing number of applications. These advances have been made possible by the availability of corpora as learning material, the development of the evaluation paradigm (shared tasks) and the creation of infrastructures for technology evaluation. But copora need to be of appropriate size to be representative of the linguistic reality and neither the needed resources nor the means to produce them exist for all languages. Experiments have shown that the size of the learning material can be a substitute for algorithmic complexity or expert knowledge, but have we reached the limit for progress with this kind of approach?

  • Yann MATHET & Antoine WIDLÖCHER (GREYC / Université de Caen Normandie)
    Annotation, évaluation et mesure d’accord en linguistique de corpus
    pp. 111-129

    The establishment and evaluation of annotated resources as well as automatic annotation systems have growing interest in linguistics and NLP. However, evaluation methods are not always well mastered and used, particularly in linguistics, where the sequential nature of textual data requires specific methods. In this article, we first analyze the notions of corpus and annotation in their multiple forms, then focus on the results of the evaluation questions. In particular, we emphasize the difference in nature between the evaluation of an annotation system and the evaluation of manually multi-annotated resources. We provide an overview of existing evaluation tools and their possible use for each of these two cases.