|2018-1||Savoir parler : de la perception à la production|
(Speaking: from perception to production)
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Fabián SANTIAGO (Université Paris 8)Produire, percevoir et imiter la parole en L2 : interactions linguistiques et enjeux théoriquespp. 5-14
This contribution introduces the most crucial findings of recent research in second language phonology, and then discusses the questions raised by thevarious contributions of this special issue. We focus on four main topics: (i) the role of speech perception in L2 phonology models and the L1 transfer, (ii) the perception of L2 prosodic phenomena, (iii) the effects of visual cues on the L2 pronunciation accuracy, and (iv) the linguistic interactions and the interfaces between phonology and the other modules of the L1/L2 grammar.
Sandra SCHWAB & Noémie CALPINI (Genève, Suisse / Université de Genève)Expertise musicale et perception de variations de f0 en L1 et en L2(Musical expertise and perception of f0 variations in L1/L2 )pp. 15-30
The present study deals with the effect of musical expertise on the perception of fundamental frequency (f0) variations in native (French) and foreign language (Spanish). Results showed on the one hand that musical expertisefacilitates the discrimination of f0 variations in pure tones and in French words. On the other hand, they revealed that musical expertise helps native listeners of a foreign languageto discriminate stress contrasts realized, among others, by means of f0 variations.
Philippe BOULA DE MAREÜIL & Plínio A. BARBOSA (Paris Sud / Unicamp)Caractérisation de styles de parole et d’accents étrangers à travers l’imitation : comparaisons entre français et portugais brésilienpp. 31-44
In the reported study, we asked French and Brazilian Portuguese native speakers to read a text in a neutral way (in both languages), imitating a broadcast news style and imitating a Brazilian/French foreign accent. The main goal was to analyze which salient features imitators reinforce as indicative of a speaking style or a foreign accent, in terms of prosody (initial accentuation, melody and silent pause duration) especially, as well as at the segmental level of the /R/ pronunciation for Brazilian/French accents. In French as in Brazilian Portuguese, results highlight that initial prominence is an essential characteristic of the broadcaster style, whereas /R/ pronunciation is one of the most important parameters signaling a foreign accent.
Paolo MAIRANO, Bene BASSETI, Mirjana SOKOLOVIĆ-PEROVIĆ & Tania CERNI (University of Warwick / UK & University of Reading / UK)Effects of L1 orthography and L1 phonology on L2 English pronunciation(Les effets de l’orthographe et de la phonologie de la L1 sur la prononciation de l’anglais L2)pp. 45-57
Recent research has revealed the effects of orthography on the pronunciation of consonant durations in the L2 English of L1 Italian speakers (e.g. the [p] infloppy being pronounced as longer than in copy). In this paper we compared this orthographic effect with an orthography-independent effect of L1 phonology, namely VOT. We measured closure durations and VOT for plosives produced by 30 learners of L2 English in Italy, 30 Italian late bilingual speakers of L2 English living in the UK, and 30 native English speakers. While VOT values produced by late bilinguals differed significantly from those produced by learners, closure durations were similar across the two groups. Additionally, L1 Italian VOT values proved thatlate bilinguals adapted VOT in L2 English by a larger extent than learners. It appears that the effects of orthography on L2 consonant duration can be more resistant to naturalistic L2 exposure than orthography-independent effects of L1 phonology.
Christoph GABRIEL, Marion KRAUSSE & Tetyana DITTMERS (Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz / University of Hamburg)VOT production in multilingual learners of French as a foreign language: cross-linguistic influence from the heritage languages Russian and Turkish(La production du VOT chez des apprenants plurilingues du français langue étrangère : l’influence du russe et du turc comme langues d’origine)pp. 59-72
We analyze the production of [±voiced] stops in French as a foreign language by multilingual learners who speak Russian or Turkish as a heritage language along with their dominant language, German. Control data produced by monolingually raised German learners are taken into account. It is shown that the bilingual learners perform more target-like than the monolinguals for the voiceless stops /ptk/, but not for their voiced counterparts /bdɡ/. This suggests that the (non-)aspiration of voiceless stops is perceptually more salient for the learners than the presence or absence of pre-voicing in the realization of voiceless stops. We interpret our overall results as an example of an at least partial multilingual advantage in foreign language learning.
Sophie HERMENT (Aix-Marseille Université)Apprentissage et enseignement de la prosodie : l’importance de la visualisationpp. 73-88
Using research tools like PRAAT, a tool for doing phonetics, SPPAS, which performs automatic annotation, and the AixOx learners’ corpus, this article gives examples of possible pedagogical applications to help the learning and teaching of English prosody for French learners in secondary schools. The theoretical framework is the British school of intonation and the illustrations concern the three types of decision the speaker has to take, namely tonality, tonicity and tone.It is argued that visualising and comparing natives and learners’ productions can induce a better comprehension and apprehension of prosodic phenomena for ESL.
Cédric PATIN & Sandra BENAZZO (Université de Lille / Université Paris 8)La prosodie joue-t-elle un rôle dans la détermination de la portée ? Le cas d'‘également’pp. 89-102
The goal of this study is to determine whether prosody contributes to the discrimination of meaning in sentences with French ‘également’, when it is used with the additive function of ‘also’, given the crucial role prosody plays in the use of additive particles in some other languages. In order to verify the role of prosody, we have run an experimental study based on a reading task: 20 native speakers were recorded while reading a set of contextualized sentences with ‘également’ placed in structurally ambiguous positions. The results show the presence of different types of prosodic correlates associated with ‘également’, but also that they are not exploited in a systematic way.