|2017-1||Diversité des ressources lexicales : de leur élaboration à leur utilisation|
(Diversity in lexical approaches: from elaboration to use)
|Klicken Sie auf das Buch zu abstrahieren!||Dieses Problem wurde auf Linie wurde in seiner Ganzheit setzen auf dem Portal: Cairn.info|
François MANIEZ (Lyon 2)Etude comparée de quelques dictionnaires du français en lignepp. 9-26
After a brief reminder of the main features of lexicographic resources provided in electronic format, we review the main French online dictionaries, comparing the microstructure of their entries and their coverage of two types of neology: nouns ending in -ing that have been borrowed from English (e.g. dumping) and adjectives that express impossibility (e.g. insociable).
Franck SAJOUS & Nabil HATHOUT (CLLE-ERSS / CNRS & Université de Toulouse 2)Informativité, neutralité et point de vue dans une offre dictionnairique hétérogène : vers une complémentarité ?pp. 27-39
This article considers how different dictionaries help decode meaning, based on the user perspective. Definitions taken from expert-written and crowdsourced dictionaries are compared, with a focus on their neutrality and their informativeness. Both of the two types of dictionaries are finally judged complementary resources for the user.
Marc VAN CAMPENHOUDT (Université libre de Bruxelles)Modélisation et échange normalisé des données lexicales en langue spécialiséepp. 41-60
In order for their content to be exploited to the fullest, true electronic dictionaries must store data using underlying structures and categories. Specialised terminology dictionaries, especially multilingual ones, can strongly benefit from a design where the data is organised into highly granular categories and structured following a monosemic ‘spoke-hub’ model. A representation consistent with the ISO 16 642 standard (TerminologicalMarkup Framework, 2003) would be a very appropriate way to implement this model. However, using XML markup that meets this standard set by the International Organization for Standardization is not a guarantee of the data’s quality or interoperability.
Dorota SIKORA (Université du Littoral-Côte d'Opale)Modélisation de connaissances lexicales dans une ressource lexicale(Lexical knowledge modelization in a lexical resource)pp. 61-74
Exploring lexicon implies access to the meaning of lexical units, as well as mastery of a whole set of formal, paradigmatic, syntagmatic or simply associative relations between them. Thus, how can a lexical resource manage to account for the global structure of the lexicon on the one hand, providing detailed lexicographic description of single lexical units on the other? With such a double perspective, the paper discusses the data structure encoded in the French Lexical Network (RL-fr), resource that implements lexical system model (Polguère 2014, 2016). Further, a handful of its possible applications are considered.
Michèle DEBRENNE (Université nationale de recherche de Novossibirsk (Russie))La psycholinguistique en Russie et les dictionnaires d’associations évoquées par les motspp. 75-88
The article presents dictionaries of words associations (also called ‘lexical’ or ‘verbal’ associations). Firstly used in psychological experiments, these dictionaries were mainly developed in Russia from the 1980s where a new linguistic discipline appeared, the ‘associative linguistics’. We present the results obtained for French language due to the creation of two dictionaries and their possible exploitations, in particular in semantics.
Michèle OLIVIÉRI, Sylvain CASAGRANDE, Guylaine BRUN-TRIGAUD & Pierre-Aurélien GEORGES (Université Nice Sophia Antipolis / CNRS / Université Côte d'Azur)Le Thesaurus Occitan dans tous ses étatspp. 89-102
The Thesaurus occitan (THESOC) is a multimedia database that aims at assembling all the dialectal data gathered in an oral form throughout the occitan-speaking region. It has two parts: one deals with the lexicon, and the other, composed of sentences, is devoted to syntax. Different tools and functionalities are associated with the data in order to allow researchers to constitute bodies of work and to formulate and verify hypotheses. This article presents the most recently upgraded form of the THESOC, its modalities of construction, and its methods of consultation.
Patrizia CRESPI (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Dénia (Alicante))Wordreference : une Wikipédia lexicographiquepp. 103-115
Internet has become a must for translation and linguistic researches; the digital processing of the paper dictionaries as well as the online dictionaries are new tools that offer a wide range of possibilities that translators shall learn to understand and use properly. We will focus on the structure of a search in the multilingual site WordReference for the language pair french-spanish, in order to verify its utility for a professional user; in particular, we will check the Forums's applications, where the traditional dictionary is being reinvented in a new collaborative tool for translation. Our aim is to show that the work of the lexicographers can be complemented by the contributions of translators and other language specialists, giving a brand new shape to lexicographic resources.
Chienwen TSAI (Université Nationale de Kaohsiung de l'Hôtellerie et du Tourisme)Analyse lexicale des verbes culinaires dans les dictionnaires spécialiséspp. 117-129
Terms play a significant role in many domains of activity. In French culinary art, they are useful to transmit cooking knowledge, communicate in a professionnal kitchen, access to specialized documents, etc. There are a lot of culinary verbs because culinary techniques and different modes of cooking are so important in this domain. In addition to monosemic culinary verbs, many other verbs have metaphorical meaning of a ordinary word. In this paper, we propose a morphological and semantic analysis for culinary verbs from two specialized dictionaries: Le lexique culinaire de Ferrandi and Les mots de la cuisine et de la table. After studying them, we could learn more about lexical features of culinary verbs. The research results may promote the teaching of French for culinary art.
Benoît SAGOT (Inria / Paris)Représentation de l’information sémantique lexicale : le modèle wordnet et son application au françaispp. 130
The wordnet model is the most widespread model for representing lexical semantics based on an a priori inventory of meanings. Following the Princeton WordNet of English, wordnet-type resources have been developed for dozens of languages, including French, most often using automatic or semi-automatic techniques. In this article, we first review the characteristics and limitations of the wordnet model. We then present a panorama of wordnet development methods. We finally illustrate our own work in this area on the development of WOLF, the free French wordnet.
Mieux enseigner la grammaire, pistes didactiques et activités pour la classe, de S. Chartrand
par G. Chevalierpp. 131-132
Linguistique et traductologie : les enjeux d'une relation complexe, de M. Boisseau, C. Chauvin, C. Delesse & Y. Keromnes
par N. Froeligerpp. 132-136