(Mastery of reading)
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Dominique LAFONTAINE & Patricia SCHILLINGS (Université de Liège)L’évaluation de la lecture-compréhension dans les enquêtes internationales : enjeux et perspectivespp. 9-20
This paper sets out to present the way reading literacy is assessed in the two main comparative studies: PIRLS (Progress in International Reading Literacy Study) and PISA (the Program for International Student Assessment). The way cognitive tests are developed is first presented in general terms (framework, selection of texts, test development, administration, quality controls, etc.). The way reading literacy is assessed in PIRLS and PISA is then described in greater detail. Finally, the paper provides an overview of the main trends in reading literacy comparative studies in nearly fifty years of existence; limitations, issues and challenges for the future are discussed.
Jean-Marie DE KETELE (Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique)Les épreuves externes d’évaluation certificative de la Belgique francophone : une analyse à la lumière des mouvements didactiques et pédagogiques actuelspp. 21-34
In particular since the publication of the results of international tests, numerous countries have started monitoring their education systems using national testing schemes. This is the case for French-speaking Belgium. This article sets out to look at external certification assessments in 2015, the analysis of which reveals some original aspects in keeping with current trends in teaching and learning. These aspects are looked at in sufficient detail here to engage all readers.
Jean ECALLE & Annie MAGNAN (Lyon 2 / Université de Lyon)L’apport des entraînements informatisés à la réduction des difficultés en lecturepp. 35-50
We aim to present the development and the validation of two software programmes: one to train children in decoding and word recognition and the other one for comprehension. They are based on recent theoretical hypotheses, one stipulating that syllable are important units for reading words in French and the other one underlining that reading comprehension is underpinned by literal processing and two inferential processing, coherence inferences and knowledge-based inferences. These two software programmes were tested with several groups of children and adolescents with reading difficulties, some were poor decoders, others poor comprehenders and others poor decoders and poor comprehenders.
Sébastien PACTON & Amandine AFONSO JACO (Université Paris Descartes)Comment les enfants apprennent-ils l’orthographe des mots ?pp. 51-61
The use of phonographemic knowledge is fundamental though often insufficient to produce correct spelling in French. Other knowledge must also be acquired and mobilized, whether this is explicitly learned or not: knowledge about word-specific spellings (lexical orthography), regularities of the spelling system (graphotactic patterns) and morphemes (minimal units of meaning) that make up words. This article presents and discusses studies looking at how and when children acquire and mobilize these different types of spelling knowledge.
Hiyon YOO, Elisabeth DELAIS-ROUSSARIE, Damien LOLIVE & Nelly BARBOT (Université Paris-Diderot / Paris / ENSSAT-Université de Rennes 1)Le Rythme en Lecture Oralisée (parole synthétique et parole naturelle)pp. 63-77
This paper compares the rhythmic features obtained in natural and in synthesized speech along three dimensions: the speech type (synthesized vs natural speech), the literary genre (rhymes, poems vs story telling), and the communication setting (speech addressed to children vs addressed to adults). The study is based on the analysis of duration patterns observed in a corpus recorded by two speakers and generated by a synthesis system. Results show that rhythmic differences between synthesized and natural speech are mostly due to the marking of prosodic structure by duration.This work is achieved within a project aiming at improving the naturalness of synthesized speech for use in pedagogical software.
Thomas FRANÇOIS (Université Catholique de Louvain)When readability meets computational linguistics: review of a new paradigm in readabilitypp. 79-97
Readability is an almost century-old field that aims to match readers with texts based on reproducible tools. It has a long history, but it is remarkable that the methodology used to coin readability formulas hardly evolved until recently, when traditional readability studies came into contact with the field of Natural Language Processing (NLP). In this paper, we first briefly retrace the milestones in readability research before the advent of this new paradigm, that we propose to call ‘Artificial Intelligence (AI) readability’ since it results from the conjunction of two AI-connected domains: NLP and machine learning. We then describe in more detail some of the important studies within this new paradigm, before discussing three main issues of the field that need to be resolved in order to make significant advances and present interesting perspectives for future research.
Julien LE MAUX (HEC Montréal)La lisibilité de l’information financièrepp. 99-113
The financial and accounting information plays a growing role in society and the current economy. The press, whether specialized or not, publishes more and more information disseminated by firms on their performance and risk. Yet although the amount of information grows over time, the question of its quality has been no study of the legislature or the financial regulator. This literature review aims to present the results of studies on the subject. These studies show evidence that the readability of the accounting and financial documents is very low.
La phonologie du français : normes, périphéries, modélisation. Mélanges pour Chantal Lyche., de J. Durand, G. Kristoffersen, B. Laks & J. Peuvergne
par P. Boula de Mareüilpp. 115-118
Enseignement du français : les apports de la recherche en linguistique., de M. Avanzi , V. Conti, G. Corminboeuf & al.
par J. Lindschouwpp. 118-120