|2009-2||Terminologie : orientations actuelles|
(Terminology: current trends )
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John HUMBLEY (CNRS)Terminologie : orientations actuelles(Terminology: current trends)pp. 5-8
Maria Teresa CABRÉ (Barcelone, Espagne)La Teoría Comunicativa de la Terminología, una aproximación lingüística a los términos(The communicative theory of Terminology, a linguistic approach of terms)pp. 9-15
The theory of terminology has evolved considerably in recent years, responding on the one hand to new challenges in specialised communication and profiting on the other from new trends in general linguistics. The general theory of terminology, which used to be concerned largely with matters of standardisation, has given way to a more open approach, firmly set in the sphere of linguistics which is better equipped to account for the various scenarios used in scientific and technical communication. The communicative theory of terminology is a linguistic approach which studies terms simultaneously as units of language, of cognition and of social function. The article discusses the theoretical basis of this approach, and its suitability for describing terms and its empirical value in accounting for the diversity of the data but without foregoing the possibility of treating terms from other points of view.
Joaquín GARCÍA PALACIOS (Salamanque, Espagne)La competencia neológica especializada en el estudio y la actuación sobre la neología terminológica(The need for specialised neological competence for the study and application of terminological neology)pp. 17-30
Work in terminological neology must necessarily involve an in-depth study of all the elements implied in the processes of lexical generation in a specialised field of study, of which the most important is what we call specialised neological competence. This paper starts from a review of the terminological neology carried out in recent decades, and is based on the application of a method embracing the joint contributions of different linguistic disciplines.
Pascaline DURY & Aurélie PICTON (Lyon 2 / Toulouse)Terminologie et diachronie : vers une réconciliation théorique et méthodologique ?(Terminology and diachrony: towards a theoretical and methodological reconciliation)pp. 31-41
Terminology has conventionally been biased in favour of synchrony and most studies carried out in the field have remained fixed on specialised language at a point in time. After having listed the possible reasons for the lack in the production of diachronic accounts of specialised languages, we shall discuss new developments, in the theory as well as in the methodology, of what may be called “modern” terminology. We will then show that the use of corpus linguistics and computer science has undoubtedly helped “modern” terminology to focus more on corpus provision and study in diachrony. We will finally show that a lot remains to be done for diachrony to join synchrony as a major interest of study in terminology, making it an area ripe for growth.
Taoufik MASSOUSSI & Salah MEJRI (Paris 13)Traitement automatique des métonymies(Automated processing of metonymies)pp. 43-56
Metonymy plays an important though often neglected role in lexicalisation, both in general language and in language for special purposes. This article shows how principles set out to account automatically for metonymy in general language are directly applicable to LSP.
Morten PILEGAARD (Aarhus, Danemark)Collaborative repositories: An organisational and technological response to current challenges in specialised knowledge communication?pp. 57-71
This paper presents concepts and systems for multilingual terminological and textual knowledge codification, representation, validation, management and sharing structured around the notion of genre. These systems operationalize the different stages of the ‘virtuous knowledge cycle’ within a dynamic, multilingual specialized web-dictionary and a multilingual, genre-based corpus of medical texts genre hierarchies or systems. The knowledge cycle approach mirrors ‘real life’ working processes and allows for repeated conversions of knowledge between its tacit and explicit forms, allowing knowledge to codify and spiral up from the individual to the collective level at corporate, ‘community of practice’. The paper reports on the results of the implementation of these concepts and systems in general and the web-dictionary in particular within the Danish health care, pharmaceutical, medical device and translation sectors which technologically have been fused into one collective ‘knowledge cluster’ and it discusses the opportunities for research and business that spring from fusion of language and health technologies.
Susanne LERVAD (Termplus ApS, Danemark)Recherche en terminologie et applications pratiques : quelques axes de collaboration avec des partenaires industriels danois(Research in terminology and practical applications: ways of co-operation with partners in the Danish industry)pp. 73-80
The linguist services company Termplus ApS specialises in developing term and knowledge bases for Danish businesses. One important aspect of this activity concerns managing issues of synonymy in a multilingual industrial context. As is generally recognised, synonyms tend to develop unchecked in various aspects of a company’s activities and documentation, leading to inconsistencies and misunderstandings, which may in worst case scenarios lead to financial losses due to faulty interpretations of decisions or safety procedures. In order to provide a practical answer to this challenge and to help firms to manage their language resources optimally, Termplus ApS turns to current research in LSP as well as accepted terminology practice. The result is clear, systematic professional communication.
Henning BERGENHOLTZ (Aarhus, Danemark)Schnellerer und sicherer Datenzugriff in gedruckten und elektronischen Fachwörterbüchern und Lexika(Faster and more reliable retrieval of data in specialized printed and digital dictionaries and lexicons)pp. 81-97
In the information age we have more accessible data than ever before. At the same time there is undoubtedly a greater information need than ever before. We can distinguish between at least three types of information needs: communicative, cognitive and operational. Dictionaries will normally focus on one or more communicative functions, encyclopaedias normally on cognitive functions, user guides and manuals focus on operational functions. To perform such functions, we need reference books containing the necessary data. This is a main topic both in metalexicography and in terminography. Far less observations have been made to the no less important question: How and especially how quick can the user get access to the data ?
Patrick LEROYER & Rufus GOUWS (Aarhus, Danemark / Stellenbosch, Afrique du Sud)En termes de vin : lexicographisation du guide œnotouristique en ligne(In terms of wine: lexicographisation of an on-line tourist guide for wine-lovers)pp. 99-116
Online tourist guides are information tools communicating destination image and specialised knowledge at the same time. They feature a large variety of lexicographic structures including word lists, articles, conceptual schemes, indexes and registers, search options on keywords, internal and external cross references etc. This is by no means surprising in so far as what is needed is effective data access in order to extract information – precisely in the same way as in lexicography. The functional thesis we defend in this article is that lexicographisation in a user perspective can improve the access process. Taking œnotouristic online guides as a case in point, we will examine different user situations leading to consultation, in particular the need for experiential information, in which users simply wish to improve the conditions of their œnotouristic experience. We will then formulate theoretical proposals aimed at ensuring better interaction of lexicographic functions, data presentation and access possibilities.
François MANIEZ (Lyon 2)L’adjectif dénominal en langue de spécialité : étude du domaine de la médecine(Denominal adjectives in specialised language: the case of the medical domain)pp. 117-130
Relational adjectives are a key component of specialized language in French as well as many other languages. The use of relational adjectives as a substitute for a prepositional phrase follows the principle of economy in language, but it is also a characteristic of specialized discourse: French physicians will use expressions like “cancer mammaire” or “infarctus myocardique” where the layman uses “cancer du sein” or “infarctus du myocarde”. After studying morphological, syntactic and semantic aspects of relational adjectives, we attempt to identify some of the factors that seem to induce the use of relational adjectives instead of prepositional phrase complements, based on examples drawn from an eight-million-word corpus of medical research articles; variation in the use of the adjectives coronaire and coronarien is also studied.
Insikter om insikt : Nordiska teser om fackkommunikation, de C. Laurer, J. Myking & H. Picht
par J. Humbleypp. 131-132
TOTh 08. Terminologie et Ontologie : Théories et Applications, de C. Roche
par J. Humbleypp. 132-133
Kunnskap og fagkommunikasjon : Nordterm 15, de J. Hoel
par J. Humbleypp. 133-134
Progression dans l'enseignement du français langue première au secondaire québecois, de S. Chartrand
par M. Elaloufpp. 134-136