|2002-2||Acquisition des langues : nouvelles orientations|
(Language learning and acquisition: new developments)
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Colette NOYAU & Maria KIHLSTEDT (Paris 10-Nanterre / Paris 10-Nanterre)Acquisition des langues, Recherches récentes sur les locuteurs en action et les processus de traitement de la langue dans l'activité textuelle(Language acquisition. Recent research on speakers in processing language texts)pp. 5-6
Maria KIHLSTEDT (Paris 10-Nanterre)L'emploi de l'imparfait par des locuteurs suédophones et des locuteurs natifs(The use of the past tense in French by suedophones and French native speakers)pp. 7-16
This study investigates the acquisition of the imparfait by advanced Swedish learners of French. Their use of the imparfait is compared to that of some native speakers in an interview task. The analysis is based on the relationship between Event Time and Reference Time in different values expressed by the imparfait. It is shown that the learners prefer the imparfait for situations where the actual time of the event (Event Time) completely overlaps with the time spoken about (Reference Time). Situations that imply a distance between the two time spans are only expressed in the imparfait by the most advanced learner and by the native speakers. On the basis of this result, an implicational scale for the acquisition of the contextual values of the imparfait at advanced stages is suggested.
Peter GRIGGS, Rita CAROL & Pierre BANGE (Lyon 2)La dimension cognitive dans l'apprentissage des langues étrangères(The cognitive dimension in learning foreign languages)pp. 17-29
The aim of this article is to show the importance of basing foreign language teaching pedagogy on a cognitive theory of learning. The article draws on John Anderson's theory of learning and is illustrated by two longitudinal studies. Learning is seen to involve two main stages :at the initial stage a procedural rule giving a specific form to a function is constructed from declarative knowledge from different sources using general problem-solving procedures ; a second phase entails the automatisation of the procedural rule and its gradual modification through processes of generalisation and discrimination. An analysis of classroom practice leads us next to re-focus the problem of instructed language learning on the compatibility between the aims of the teacher, the cognitive activity of the learner and his communicative performance and needs in the target language.
Martin HOWARD (Cork, Irlande)Les interrelations entre les facteurs contextuels contraignant l'emploi variable des temps du passé. Une étude d'apprenants avancés du français(Interaction between contextual factors and variation in the use of past tenses by anglophone learners of French)pp. 31-42
Given the range of linguistic factors which have previously been proposed as constraints on the linguistic variation characterising the expression of past time by the second language learner, it is difficult to pinpoint which single factor is genuinely at work behind this phenomenon in learner language. In an attempt to distinguish between the effects of such multiple factors in anglophone advanced learners of French, this paper presents quantitative evidence which suggests that no single factor outweighs another. Rather, each factor 'interacts' with every other, in such a way that the causes of that variation are not singular but indeed multiple.
Ewa WIBERG (Lund, Suède)Reference to past and verticalization in advanced NNSs dialoguespp. 43-50
The present work concerns the use of past reference and the possible connection between verticalization and syntactic complexity in advanced Italian interlanguage in dialogues with Swedish university students. Although the NNSs' (nonnative speakers) have reached a certain syntactic complexity and refer to the past in a way similar to that of native speakers of the target language, their fluency of speech is less advanced. The students therefore recur to scaffolding and verticalize their information about past events, relying on the proficient interlocutor's interaction. It is proposed that the above mentioned discrepancy might be due to different language processing skills utilized. Native speakers have access to procedural knowledge that is required in quick speech, while the acquisitional stages seem to use knowledge that is stored in long-term memory, that is declarative knowledge. Through exposure to language the NNSs' access to on-line speech production becomes more rapid and the procedural knowledge increases. Consequently it is important to sort out different language skills when defining the advanced levels.
Ake VIBERG (Uppsala, Suède)Basic verbs in second language acquisitionpp. 51-69
Verbs have a central role in language processing but simultaneously verbs tend to represent a greater cognitive load on processing than nouns. An important characteristic of the verb lexicon is that in all languages, a small number of verbs appear to be dominant in terms of frequency. The most frequent verbs in an individual language are referred to as basic verbs.Among the basic verbs in any language, there is a set of nuclear verbs which tend to have the same basic meaning in all languages (a universaltendency). In addition, there are some basic verbs that have alanguage-specific meaning. The paper summarizes research based on a computerized learner corpus with data from projects concerned with Swedish as a second language of children and adults. The primary data were recordings of oral production carried out individually with learners at several points in time. One of the major findings was that L2 learners tended to favour nuclear verbs which wereboth over used (in terms of frequency of occurrence) and over extended (withrespect to their semantic coverage). Language-specific meanings tended to be weakly represented at early stages of L2 acquisition
Gema SANZ ESPINAR (Madrid, Espagne)Lexique des procès. Rôle textuel et rôle dans l’acquisition des langues(The role of verbal lexicon at text level in SL- and FL-acquisition)pp. 71-87
Verbal lexicon has key functions at textual level. Competence in second language - and specially narrative competence, with which we are dealing here - can be influenced by lack of verbal lexicon, by partial acquisition or idiosyncratic acquisition of it. A textual and conceptual approach of some narrative productions in French and Spanish as first and second languages (FLM, ELM, FLE and ELE) will allow us to compare both cases in these two languages in order to make clear how oral narratives are built up at propositional level (mainly, the explicit reference to processes, space and temporality) and at suprapropositional level (cohesion and coherence). Finally, we will study the influence of real oral input in the learners' oral productions.
Christiane STUTTERHEIM (VON), Roland NÜSE & Jorge MURCIA SERRA (Heidelberg, Allemagne)Différences translinguistiques dans la conceptualisation des événements(Translinguistic differences in the conceptualization of events)pp. 89-105
Le lexique des procès a des fonctions clés au niveau textuel. La compétence en langue étrangère, notamment la compétence narrative, que l'on traitera ici, peut se voir influencée par le manque du lexique des procès ou par l'acquisition partielle ou idiosyncrasique de celui-ci. Une approche textuelle et conceptuelle de quelques productions narratives en français et en espagnol langues étrangères et langues maternelles (FLM, ELM, FLE et ELE) nous permettra d'opposer les deux cas dans les deux langues, afin de mettre en relief la construction des récits oraux au niveau de l'information propositionnelle explicitée (principalement, référence au domaine des procès, de la spatialité et de la temporalité), ainsi qu'au niveau suprapropositionnel (cohésion et cohérence). Enfin, nous étudierons l'influence de l'input oral réel dans les productions orales des apprenants.
Maria CHINI (Pavie, Italie)Ordres marqués et perspective du locuteur en italien L2(Marked orders in the acquisition of general and language specific structures in Italian as L2)pp. 107-127
The paper deals with the acquisition and use of marked orders in postbasic German learners of Italian, mainly in a functional and textual perspective. We consider that grammar (in the case in point, the domain of information structure rules) is affected both by general pragmatic principles and by language-specific rules that the learner has to learn together with the target language. A cross-sectional analysis and a short longitudinal sketch reveal an acquisitional sequence of marked orders beginning with presentative structures, going on with cleft sentences and, rather late, dislocations. Results are discussed with regard to the impact of different factors (general and language-specific information organisation principles, syntactic complexity, source language, text type, etc. ).
Jean-Marc DEWAELE & Nathalie WOURM (Londres, Grande-Bretagne)L'acquisition de la compétence sociopragmatique en langue étrangère(Acquisition of sociopragmatic competence in a foreign language)pp. 129-143
The present study offers an overview of research on the acquisition of sociopragmatic competence in a foreign language. Our starting point is the "hardware", i.e. the bilingual brain and the storage of different types of pragmatic and linguistic information in it. We then adopt a teacher's perpective by looking at how sociopragmatic aspects of the target language are integrated in language courses and language classes. We go on to consider a number of studies on the teaching, the acquisition and the use of sociolinguistic and pragmatic competence in the target language. A number of studies on the teaching, the acquisition and the use of sociolinguistic and pragmatic competence in the target language are then considered. Theoretical and didactical implications are presented in the final part of the study.