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Annie MANSY, Marie-Luce HAMARD, Frédéric FOURCHARD, Philippe MARCHOIS & Alain GUERRIEN (Lille 2)Capacités motrices et capacités langagières d'enfants de 5 à 8 ans : leurs interrelations(Interrelations between motor processes and language skills in 5-8 year old children)pp. 7-20
Speech production involves motor processes, which raise several questions. Are they organized in a specific manner? Is the motor organization of phonation related to some general motor organization? We opted for the hypothesis of an effector-free sequential representation, in accordance with Keele's modular theory (1995), which assumes that sequence representations are stored as ordered collections of abstract tokens, and independent from any particular motor system. Difficulties in the functioning of this module should appear in various forms of motricity involving production of sequences, in speech as well as in various motor activities. Interrelations between results obtained at several language tasks and motor tasks were studied with 67 children from 5 to 8 years old. The most obvious result is the significant difference in the ability of reproducing rhythms depending on whether the child has language difficulties or not. These data lead to a stronger reliance in a motor approach of the language difficulties.
Shirley VINTER (Besançon)La prosodie, structure d'accueil des compétences langagières. L'apport de la pathologie(Prosody and its importance in acquiring language skills by hearing impaired children)pp. 21-34
Through analysis of adult-deaf child and adult-SLI child interaction, and after the presentation of the theoretical frame and aims of Interactive Developmental Intonology, we try to better understand the importance of prosody in early language acquisition. Our research focuses on suprasegmental development - rhythmical and melodic organization in the interaction -, and its effects on conversational and linguistic competences of handicapped children. Which are the conditions for sounds to become a canonical sentence? How a prelinguistic utterance, without words, can nevertheless have a linguistic modality?
Thi Mai TRAN (Institut d’Orthophonie de Lille)Les accidents de la parole dans le langage ordinaire et aphasique : du normal au pathologique(Between normal and pathological speech production)pp. 35-46
The production of speech is a complex cognitive activity, whose elaboration may be disturbed in various ways. Our purpose here is to explore the continuum between normal and pathological speech production. There are similitudes between performance errors by average speakers and the paraphasias produced by aphasics in the same circumstances; both kinds of perturbations affect the same linguistic units and reveal similar psycholinguistic mechanisms. Yet, production in these two cases differ according to several criteria, such as the error rate, the way the erroneous item and the target item are connected, the speaker's awareness of inadequacy, the comments he makes and his need for justification. Those elements point out to the boundaries that may be defined between normal and pathological speech.
Danièle COGIS (IUFM-Paris)Difficultés en orthographe : un indispensable réexamen(Spelling problems: towards a new diagnosis)pp. 47-61
Pupils are currently said to have difficulties in learning as soon as they make spelling mistakes. Enlightened by recent research on the acquisition of the French written language system inspired by constructivist and interactionist models, this article aims to question such a point of view. Young writers' metalinguistic explanations show that mistakes depend on their actual (and evolutive) understanding of a complex linguistic functioning. In other respects, an approach based on verbalisation and confrontation appear to be decisive in leading children towards morphosyntactic instead of mophosemantic processes. Therefore, a diagnosis of learning difficulties should not be made too soon, and not before a specific study of wrong representations has been undertaken.
Colette CORBLIN (IUFM-Cergy-Pontoise)L'usage des formes verbales dans les écrits scolaires : le cas du plus-que-parfait(The use of verb forms in school writing: the French past perfect)pp. 63-73
Based on the description of defective verbal forms in stories, we propose an analysis of errors with a didactic aim. The past perfect is a verbal tense that children know well and use spontaneously. Deficient usage in school stories, however, reveals some difficulties when they imagine mentally the succession of the events of a story in the act of writing. Our hypothesis is two-fold : on the one hand the child has difficulties in representing the order of events, on the other he/she has to choose an event which serves as a temporal mark in the story and allows for the use of a past perfect. The study of discourse where the unsuitable form appears, indicates a conflict in the act of writing, i.e. the difficulty of the writer to unify the narrator's point of view.
Marie-Madeleine BERTUCCI (IUFM-Versailles)L’emploi du genre et du nombre par des élèves créoles de La Réunion. Approches linguistiques et perspectives didactiques(The use of gender and number by creole students in La Reunion. Linguistic approach and didactic perspectives)pp. 75-88
This article aims at examining some linguistic dysfunctions of Creole pupils of La Reunion, via the categories of gender and number, in the particular linguistic context of diglossia. The postulate rests on the idea that variety in spelling errors hides a certain regularity. Our hypothesis tends to show that three prominent features underly the visible instability of errors: regularity, differentiation and standardization. Therefore, one expects to see a double movement of simplification and of complexification, that shows either in the absence of discrimination, or in some form of assimilation, adaptation or fixation. Dysfunctions concerning grammatical morphograms will illustrate our analysis. Finally the didactic perspectives in order to remedy these phenomena will be addressed.
Alain DEVEVEY (Lyon 2)Organisation catégorielle du lexique et maladie d'Alzheimer(Categorical organisation of the lexicon and Alzheimer's disease)pp. 89-98
Based on recent studies that put into question the concepts of prototype and typicality, this study treats the processes of categorization by sufferers from Alzheimer's disease, in the light of two themes: clotting of the prototype into stereotype and distinction between, on the one hand, the representations of common objects developed by an individual in a very early stage of his development and, on the other hand, the socialized attainments acquired subsequently. We analyse the processes of categorization in five groups of subjects (English-speaking students, French-speaking students, sufferers from Alzheimer's disease and witnesses) paired by age, sex and level of studies. Our aim is to study two effects on the probability of categorical inclusion: the effect of constraints and categories (putting in contrast four types of categories - two "natural" ones and two "artefactual" or cultural ones), and the effect of typicality of examples, in the different groups of subjects. By this analysis, we aim to demonstrate specific behaviours shown by the group of sufferers.
Andrew D. COHEN (Minneapolis, États-Unis)The Use of Translation Strategies in Coping with Language Learning Difficultiespp. 99-105
Drawing on learner verbal report, this paper describes ways in which verbal report data reflecting the use of mental and written translation strategies have provided insights into language learning and language use. The paper characterizes the use of mental translation strategies, considers the choice between mental and written translation, and then deals with translation strategies in the different modalities.
Olga THEOPHANOUS (Montréal, Canada)Déviations lexicales de forme et de sens chez les apprenants de français langue étrangère(Lexical deviations of form and meaning in learners of French as a SL)pp. 107-120
Following an empirical study, this article deals with a specific type of errors in vocabulary acquisition of French as a second language: intralingual lexical confusion. 480 English and Greek speaking learners (beginners, intermediates and advanced) of French were given a L2-L1 translation task of French words. A large number of errors revealed confusions due to formal and/or semantic similarity between the target words and other French words known by the learners. The formal and/or semantic comparison between error and target word allowed a narrower description of intralingual lexical confusion highlighting some precise sub-categories of what the author calls "lexical confusibles".
Berthille PALLAUD & Marie SAVELLI (Aix-en-Provence / Grenoble)L’oral enfantin : comment l’évaluer ?(Methods for evaluating speech production in children)pp. 121-135
One of the main problems in establishing linguistic dysfunctioning resides in the definition of the 'comparison group'. The numerous studies today in the domain of oral proficiency, have shown that comparing oral with written language production can seriously bias the outcome. As for children's speech, the evaluation is sometimes even more seriously biased by what may be called 'adultocentrism', which allows to conclude too hastily and/or erroneously for language dysfunctioning. In this article we want to show what can be considered as common errors in oral language proficiency of children, and what might be indicative of more specific problems.
Marie J. MYERS (Kingston, Canada)Development of strategies in the second language developmentpp. 137-144
In this paper we analyse the decoding strategies of two female foreign students in engineering programs in order to uncover best practices. The students were asked to note language items causing difficulties and the different strategies used to arrive at the meaning while using a dictionary. We recommend scaffolding activities to enable these students to bridge the language gap and fully benefit from their program of studies.