|1996-1||La communication parlée|
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Brigitte ZELLNER (Lausanne, Suisse)Structures temporelles et structures prosodiques en français lu(Temporal and prosodic structures in French reading)pp. 7-23
Although the prosodic component has been integrated in speech synthesis systems for many years, one temporal dimension, namely fluency of speech, has much less been considered. Fluent speech is characterized by easy verbal production, smooth onsets and transitions, and an adequate speech rate. It will be argued that for French, the current lack of fluency in speech synthesis can be explained by the fact that temporal structuring is inadequate for achieving this, as this structure is considered to be congruent with the accent structure. In this article a new approach of temporal organisation will be presented.
Geneviève CAELEN-HAUMONT (CNRS-Grenoble)Lexique, indices mélodiques et auto-interprétation(Lexicon, melodic indices and auto-interpretation)pp. 25-40
This article aims to investigate experimentally the links between prosody and the various domains of linguistics (syntax, semantics, pragmatics). Since the function of prosody is to convey the interpretation of the meaning the speaker wants to give to his utterance, the method that is proposed is to define linguistic models that can be quantified in such a way as to both yield an interpretive strategy of the linguistic contents and to predict a melodic structuring of the lexical framework. Experimental evidence shows links between on the one hand constraints related to the text and the context, and on the other the distribution of models and melodical indices, and allows us to define prosody and more in particular melody, as a subjective locus, where whatever belongs to the linguistic realm enters the realm of pragmatics.
Louis-Jean BOË, Nathalie VALLÉE, Jean-Luc SCHWARTZ, Christian ABRY & Redda BERRAH (Grenoble / INPG-Grenoble)La matérialité des structures sonores du langage(The material aspect of sound structures in language)pp. 41-54
Do the major tendencies of phonological systems of languages depend on constraints of production and perception ? This problem has been studied in the framework of "substance oriented" linguistics, which was introduced simultaneously by Lindblom and Stevens in 1972. Various universal tendencies of phonological systems that might be explained by the characteristics of the sound structures and could be looked upon from an ontogenetical perspective, will be presented and discussed here. The characteristics and the predictability of vocalic and syllabic systems seem to be eminently suited for the study of this question on the basis of research carried out at the ICP.
Bénédicte BOYSSON-BARDIES (DE) (CNRS-Paris)Que nous apprennent les enfants en babillant ?(What do babbling children teach us?)pp. 55-64
Study of rythmic and temporal properties of babbling of infants aged between 8 and 10 months that were recorded in Paris, London, Hong-Kong and Algiers, shows that, from that age on, the schemes of pitch and syllable organisation tend to approach the characteristic forms of final syllables in the language of the environment. An interlingual comparative study of the phonetic organisation and the syllable structure of babbling shows in the same way that the processes of perceptual selection interact with the motor performance of the infants. So babbling appears as an exercise which reveals a selection by the infants of the forms of the phonetic and phonotactic space that is proper to their language.
Marie-Claude PFAUWADEL-MONFRAIS & Nadia TEITLER (Hôpital Necker, Paris)La décomposition de la syllabe chez le bègue : évidence phonétique, interprétation phonologique et perspectives de remédiation(Decomposing the syllable of the stutterer: phonetic evidence, phonological interpretation and methods for remediation)pp. 65-80
In a study of the production of six stutterers, the authors of the present article aim to analyse the influence of phonology on the cleaving of syllables that is characteristic of this speech trouble. Part of the study is devoted to the causes of very frequent inintelligibility of stutterers, and to the necessity for those speakers to restructure certain syntagms, particularly in French, where the typically French phenomenon of "liaison" creates a unique case of stuttering. The consequences for speech therapy are discussed.
Jacqueline LEYBAERT (Bruxelles, Belgique)L'acquisition de la lecture chez l'enfant sourd : l'apport du Langage Parlé Complété(The acquisition of reading skills with deaf children: the contribution of 'Completed Spoken Language')pp. 81-94
It is a well known phenomenon that deaf children generally have many difficulties in acquiring reading and spelling in alphabetic orthographies. It is argued here that these difficulties mainly result from the fact that these children rely on lipreading to perceive spoken language and that their phonological representations are underspecified. Two lines of evidence are presented in support of this view: 1/ an analysis of how deaf children exposed to spoken language only and/or to signed language read and spell; 2/ an analysis of the effect of exposure to visual systems disambiguating lipreading on the development of phonological abilities. It is concludede that deaf children may develop reading and spelling along lines similar to those of hearing children, provided that they are exposed to a linguistic input in which all the phonological contrasts of spoken language are specified.
Jean PETIT (Orléans)L’évaluation du bilinguisme institutionnel(Evaluating bilingualism at school)pp. 95-106
The following text is a report written in 1994 by a member of a commission charged with evaluating an experiment with bilingual teaching in a number of Alsatian schools, which was initiated by the "Association pour le Bilinguisme en Classe dès la Maternelle" (Association for Early Bilingual Teaching). But, beyond the evaluation of a particular experiment, the report presents itself as a balance of and a reflection on issues that are of interest for both researchers and citizens in many European countries.Considering their importance, the explantory notes that accompany this article have been put deliberately at the end of the text.
Suzanne SCHLYTER (Lund, Suède)Télicité, passé composé et types de discours dans l’acquisition du français langue étrangère(Telicity, past tense and types of discourse in acquiring French as an foreign language)pp. 107-118
This article discusses a study of the acquisition of past tenses in French, more in particular that of the "passé composé" by a number of non-guided learners of French having Swedish as their native language. Results of the study show that, contrary to the "aspectual" thesis as put forward by Andersen, the passé composé is used rather rapidly and widely to refer to the past, with verbs of different semantic types.
Le(s) processus de la traduction / Translation Process(es), de V. META
par H. Chuquetpp. 119-120
Le conditionnel dans le discours journalistique : essai de linguistique descriptive, de P. Haillet
par A. Delaveaupp. 120-121
Les créoles, de R. Chaudenson
par D. Fattierpp. 121-122
Fondamenti di sociolinguistica, de G. Berruto
par F. Gadetpp. 123-124
Bibliographie des études sur le français parlé, de J. Ambrose
par F. Gadetpp. 124-124
Quel français parler ? Initiation au français parlé au Canada et en France, de F. Mougeon
par B. Martiniepp. 124-125
Pour une ambition francophone : Le désir et l'indifférence, de D. Gallet
par H. Portinepp. 125-127
French Today: Language in its Social Context, de C. Sanders
par S. Wachspp. 128