Past issues

2014-1Langues de spécialité : problèmes et méthodes
(Languages for Specific Purposes : Problems and Methods )
Click the book to abstract!This issue has been put on line in its integrality on the Cairn portal:
  • Présentation. Langues de spécialité. Problèmes et méthodes
    (Presentation. Languages for Specific Purposes. Problems and methods)
    pp. 5-7
  • Sue STARFIELD & Brian PALTRIDGE (Sydney, Australia)
    Anglais sur objectifs spécfiques: perspectives actuelles et futures
    (Current and Future Directions in English for Specific Purposes Research)
    pp. 9-14
  • Pamela FABER, Juan VERDEJO, Pilar LEÓN, Arianne REIMERINK & Gloria GUZMÁN (Granada, España / St Louis, USA)
    Substrats neuraux des représentations du savoir spécialisé. Une étude en IRM
    (Neural Substrates of Specialized Knowledge Representation: An fMRI study)
    pp. 15-32

    Brain-imaging techniques can be applied in specialized language research to provide insights into how specialized concepts are represented, and processed in the brain. The fMRI study described in this paper focused on general and specialized lexical units and the perception of semantic meaning by expert geologists and non-geologists. The subjects performed semantic matching tasks and made decisions in regards to general language words and specialized terms designating specialized tools and familiar household utensils. The linguistic processing of specialized terms was found to be modulated by the individual’s previous experience with the objects. These results strengthen the hypothesis that when performing a domain-specific task, experts activate different brain systems from novices. This provides data regarding which brain systems are involved in cognitive processes.

  • Anje MÜLLER GJESDAL & Kjersti FLØTTUM (Université de Bergen)
    Conceptualisations de la notion du futur dans les blogs portant sur les changements de climat
    (Conceptualisations of the notion of the future in blogs on climate change)
    pp. 33-48

    Climate change discourse is a heterogeneous and expanding field, and the blogosphere is an important sub-domain for the popularization of scientific findings. The successful communication of the potential consequences of global warming is a major challenge, as the effects may not be immediately observable. In this perspective, the framing of climate change discourse and the conceptualization of the future are essential. In this article, we analyse conceptualisations of the future in the corpus Networks of Texts and People (NTAP), comprising 1.5 million English language blog posts, harvested from 3 000 climate change blogs.

  • Sunniva WHITTAKER (Bergen, Norvège)
    Contrastive legal discourse research. Corpus design and applications
    (Contrastive legal discourse research. Corpus design and applications)
    pp. 49-57

    This article discusses various types of bilingual French-Norwegian corpora within the field of law that the author has used in her research. Different corpus designs and applications are described with an emphasis on the specific challenges posed by legal discourse due to the culture bound nature of legal concepts, terms and discursive norms. The article describes both comparable and parallel corpora, both of which provide not only interesting avenues for further research but also valuable insight for the training of legal translators.

  • Philippe GRÉCIANO (Grenoble)
    La jurisprudence de la Cour de Justice de l’Union Européenne
    (Jurisprudence of the European Court of Justice of the European Union)
    pp. 59-70

    The Court of Justice of the European Union plays an essential role in the process of European construction and integration. As a guardian of the distribution of power between member states, the Union and institutions, the Court has developed a bold jurisprudence, written judgments of reference, made innovative rulings and modernized legislations responding to the challenges of globalization. The language of the European judgments and their translation are symbolic examples of specialized discourses that affect all areas outlined in the Treaties. This juridical language contributes in an effective manner to the consecration of the economic and social laws, as well as to the emergence of a European citizenship. After calling to mind the essentials that make this common law, this article highlights the complementary contributions of the law and linguistic to produce jurisprudence capable of constructing a Union of rights in the sphere of freedom, security and justice.

  • Stéphane PATIN (Université Paris-Diderot-Paris 7)
    Les discours parlementaires européens : regard croisé français-espagnol
    (Discourse in the European Parliament : the case of translation from French into Spanish)
    pp. 71-86

    This article aims to show the importance of the phenomenon of linguistic interference in French speeches initially presented in the European Parliament between 2000 and 2011, then transcribed and translated into Spanish, that were constituted in a parallel corpus. We will speak of interference when the Spanish translation contains Gallicisms of a lexical, (morpho)syntactical or semantic nature.

  • Stéphanie LOPEZ, Anne CONDAMINES & Amélie JOSSELIN-LERAY (Toulouse 2-Le Mirail / CNRS)
    Analyse des communications pilote-contrôleur : entre norme et réalité des usages langagiers
    (An analysis of communication between pilots and air traffic control : between norms and realities of linguistic usage)
    pp. 87-101

    The domain of air traffic control is the perfect example for the analysis of a linguistic norm. In this field, phraseology is a specialised language created to cover the most common situations encountered in air navigation in order to secure and optimise radiotelephony communications. When phraseology proves inadequate, a more natural form of language, called plain language, is required: it was recently introduced in the field and is a difficult notion to implement. A comparative analysis between a reference corpus and a real-communication corpus allows the description and categorisation of different types of variations used on the radio frequency as well as a discussion on the notions of norm and usage in the field of air traffic control.

  • Frédérique BRIN-HENRY (Centre Hospitalier de Bar-le-Duc)
    Using corpus-based analyses in specialised paramedical French
    pp. 103-115

    Diagnostic labels used in assessment reports in Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) show inconsistent semantic and syntactic variations. In this article we describe the way SLT terminology relates to the patients’ situation and the representations held by the professionals for each pathological condition. A corpus of 436 French reports was used to extract the most frequently used terms (such as “difficulté(s)”), to perform an analysis of the labelling process (e.g.: test usage, diagnosis according to patient age group and pathology) and to describe the most salient semantic and syntactic properties (e.g.: dynamic factor, use of prepositions “de/à”). Two major categories emerged with terms expressing on the one hand a procedural or functional and on the other hand a more systemic conception of the pathology. The aim is to establish new basis for a more accurate taxonomy.

  • Chienwen TSAI (Université Nationale de Kaohsiung de l'Hôtellerie et du Tourisme)
    La langue spécialisée du vin : étude comparative de comptes rendus de dégustation
    (Specialised language in professional wine magazines: a comparative study of wine terminology in three wine magazines)
    pp. 117-131

    The tasting reviews in professional wine magazines are often written in accordance with recognized tasting steps and specific vocabulary. This article introduces, first of all, the process of wine tasting and formation of wine terminology. Then we analyze reviews of three wine magazines with the help of previous research results and a wine language dictionary (Dictionnaire de la langue du vin). We could reexamine the composition and the ‘degree of technical nature’ of words in the reviews. In the end, we propose several avenues worth exploring.

Book reviews
  • Des sentiments au point de vue. Etudes de linguistique contrastive., de H. Chuquet, R. Nita & F. Valetopoulos
    par A. Celle
    pp. 132-135