Past issues

2005-2Dictionnaires : nouvelles approches, nouveaux modèles
(Dictionaries: new outlooks, new models)
Click the book to abstract!This issue has been put on line in its integrality on the Cairn portal:
  • Thierry FONTENELLE (Centre de Traduction UE (Luxembourg))
    Présentation : Dictionnaires, nouvelles approches, nouveaux modèles
    (Dictionaries: new outlooks, new models)
    pp. 5-10
  • Henri BÉJOINT (Lyon 2)
    Dictionnaires anciens, dictionnaires nouveaux, représentation de la langue et du discours
    (Old and new dictionaries and their different representations of language and discourse)
    pp. 11-18

    The dictionary evolved from medieval glosses that explained fragments of discourse in their contexts. Those fragments were later collected, then classified and reduced to their simplest forms, ie words. The most important aspect of that evolution from the gloss to the dictionary is that the fragment to be explained was decontextualized, extracted from discourse. The main objective of the dictionary is to give an image of the system. It is now possible to improve the dictionary in its role as a tool for explaining discourse. It cannot provide explanations that would be adapted to every single context, but it can give to the user a huge quantity of discourse, and provide explanations that would be more closely adapted to every occurrence or type of occurrence. Lexicographers would be well advised to investigate those new possibilities.

  • Serge VERLINDE, Thierry SELVA & Jean BINON (Louvain, Belgique)
    Dictionnaires électroniques et environnement d'apprentissage du lexique
    (Electronic dictionaries and learning the lexicon)
    pp. 19-30

    In this article we would like to illustrate how to combine the lexicographical description of an electronic learner's dictionary (DAFLES, Dictionnaire d'apprentissage du français langue étrangère ou seconde) and a corpus to build a learning environment for French vocabulary for learners of French as a foreign or second language at an intermediate or advanced level (ALFALEX). This is only possible if the lexicographical description is fully coherent, perfectly structured and enriched with information which is not always explicitly exhibited in traditional dictionaries, even in the electronic ones.

  • Agnès TUTIN (Grenoble 3)
    Le dictionnaire de collocations est-il indispensable ?
    (On the necessity of collocation dictionaries)
    pp. 31-48

    This paper compares two French dictionaries of collocations (the Dictionnaire des cooccurrents de Beauchesne (2001) and the Lexique Actif du Français (Mel'cuk et Polguère, in preparation)) with electronic versions of two well known French dictionaries: the Petit Robert Electronique (version 2.1) and the Trésor de la Langue Française Informatisé. Our goal is to evaluate to what extent specialised dictionaries are really better suited than general monolingual dictionaries in representing collocations for educational purposes. Three parameters are examined: the access to collocations in dictionaries, the quantity of data and the linguistic treatment of collocations.

  • Christiane FELLBAUM & Alexander GEYKEN (Princeton, États-Unis / Berlin, Allemagne)
    Transforming a Corpus into a Lexical Resource. The Berlin Idiom Project
    pp. 49-62

    We discuss the goals and methods of the lexicographic project "Collocations and Idioms in German" at the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences. A very large corpus is tagged and parsed to enable flexible searches for target structures, more specifically German verb phrase idioms. On the basis of relevant tokens, an extensive linguistic-lexicographic analysis is performed and recorded on a set of structured forms, which comprise a kind of digital dictionary entry for the target structure. For transparency and future research, each recorded linguistic-lexicographic phenomenon is linked with appropriate corpus tokens. The resulting resource, which combines an exhaustive description of the idioms' properties with corpus tokens, allows for multiple search types.

  • Patrick HANKS & James PUSTEJOVSKY (Brandeis University, États-Unis)
    A Pattern Dictionary for Natural Language Processing
    pp. 63-82

    This paper briefly surveys three of the main resources for word sense disambiguation that are currently in use - WordNet, FrameNet, and Levin classes - and proposes an alternative approach, focusing on verbs and their valencies. This new approach does not attempt to account for all possible uses of a verb, but rather all its normal uses ("norms"). By corpus pattern analysis (CPA), the normal patterns of use of verbs are established. A meaning ("primary implicature") is associated with each pattern. The patterns are then available as benchmarks against which the probable meaning of any sentence can be measured. The status of abnormal or unusual uses ("exploitations") is also briefly discussed. Also, three kinds of alternation are recognized: syntactic diathesis alternations, semantic-type alternations, and lexical alternations.

    The Color of Things: Towards the automatic acquisition of information for a descriptive dictionary
    pp. 83-94

    Physical objects are often described in dictionaries by visual features. But the information needed by computer applications for image analysis is not always found in dictionaries, nor in a complete form in any other publicly available information source. This article describes some first steps in finding more complete visual information about objects that could be used to enhance computer usable dictionaries and other knowledge repositories. We show that some information about the common colors of objects can be extracted automatically from text found on the Web.

  • Adam KILGARRIFF (Brighton, Grande-Bretagne)
    Informatique et dictionnairique
    (Requirements for state-of-the-art dictionary writing systems)
    pp. 95-102

    Computers can be used in lexicography to support the analysis of the language, and to support the synthesis of the dictionary text. There are of course many other interactions between computing and lexicography, including the preparation and presentation of electronic dictionaries, the use of dictionaries in language technology systems, and the automatic acquisition of lexical information. In technologically advanced dictionary-making, the lexicographer works with two main systems on their computer: the Corpus Query System for analysis and the Dictionary Writing System for synthesis. Currently, these are always independent, with communication between the two via cut-and-paste. We describe requirements for state-of-the-art dictionary writing systems.

  • Michael ZOCK (CNRS-LIMSI)
    Le dictionnaire mental, modèle des dictionnaires de demain ?
    (Is the mental dictionary a model of tomorrow's dictionaries?)
    pp. 103-117

    A dictionary is a necessary component for natural language processing. Yet there are different kinds of dictionaries (paper, electronic, mental) and in terms of efficiency they are not at all equivalent. Overall the best dictionary is the one that we carry with us everyday, the mental lexicon, and it is only when we lack a term or have word access problems that we reach for their paper or digital counterparts. Given the superiority of the mental lexicon we consider building electronic dictionaries according to similar principles, which supposes that we know what these principles are. To enumerate some of them is the goal of this paper. Unfortunately, the problem is too complex to be addressed in its full scope. Therefore we describe only a subset of the relevant work in psycholinguistics.

  • Thierry FONTENELLE (Centre de Traduction UE (Luxembourg))
    Dictionnaires et outils de correction linguistique
    (Dictionaries and tools for linguistics correctness)
    pp. 119-128

    Spell-checkers and grammar checkers are among the most widely used natural language processing applications. At the heart of these proofing tools, one finds the electronic lexicon, where the various types of lexical information these tools rely on are stored. We describe some of these linguistic properties and show how the border between spell-checker and grammar checker tends to become blurred in the most recent versions of these tools, even if, for the time being at least, the two types of tools keep meeting distinct needs.

Book reviews
  • Les dictionnaires Le Robert. Genèse et évolution, de M. Cormier, A. Francœur, J. Boulanger (éds)
    par J. Sablayrolles
    pp. 129-132
  • Des langues collatérales. Problèmes linguistiques, sociolinguistiques et glottopolitiques de la proximité linguistique, de J. Eloy (éd.)
    par G. Berruto
    pp. 132-134
  • Manuel de phonologie scolaire, de V. Rey
    par C. Corblin
    pp. 134-135