• Marie-Madeleine BERTUCCI (IUFM-Versailles)
    The use of gender and number by creole students in La Reunion. Linguistic approach and didactic perspectives
    2001, Vol. VI-1, pp. 75-88

    This article aims at examining some linguistic dysfunctions of Creole pupils of La Reunion, via the categories of gender and number, in the particular linguistic context of diglossia. The postulate rests on the idea that variety in spelling errors hides a certain regularity. Our hypothesis tends to show that three prominent features underly the visible instability of errors: regularity, differentiation and standardization. Therefore, one expects to see a double movement of simplification and of complexification, that shows either in the absence of discrimination, or in some form of assimilation, adaptation or fixation. Dysfunctions concerning grammatical morphograms will illustrate our analysis. Finally the didactic perspectives in order to remedy these phenomena will be addressed.

  • Angela CHAMBERS (Limerick, Irlande)
    Learning Second Language Written Expression with the Aid of a Specialised Corpus
    2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 9-20

    Originally created to provide data for linguistic research, corpora are increasingly attracting the attention of researchers in applied linguistics. This study raises and discusses a number of issues concerning the consultation of a specialised corpus of research articles in French by teachers and writers (in both cases non-native speakers of French), writing essays, theses and research articles. A one-million word corpus of research articles in French (Chambers & Le Baron 2007) will be used as an example. After examining issues relating to the creation of the corpus and giving a brief account of publications on the use of corpora as a resource for writing, pedagogic applications of the corpus will be discussed, taking the use of the first person plural, nous, as an example. This will enable us to assess the potential of specialised corpora in language learning and teaching in general and, more particularly, in the learning and teaching of writing.

  • Robert CHAUDENSON (Aix-en-Provence)
    Description and graphisation in French creoles
    2005, Vol. X-1, pp. 91-102

    Paradoxically, the implementation of the "Unicode" norm, which gives creators of graphic codes the possibility to use just any sign, makes it even more necessary to distinguish preliminary reflection and the decision to use a specific graphic code for languages which function without written forms. We therefore propose to make a distinction between the concepts of "graphiation" and "graphisation". The former encompasses all approaches to problems linked to assigning to a given language a written sign system wether based on social, economical, psychological and linguistic considerations. The latter includes technical solutions resulting from preliminary reflection. In other words, it is necessary to determine why one decides to create a written code for a language, prior to deciding on how it will or should be done.

  • Kalliopi CHLIOUNAKI (Oxford, Grande-Bretagne)
    Choosing the right spelling in Greek : morphology helps
    2003, Vol. VIII-1, pp. 35-45

    The spelling of the vowel sound /i/ in Greek inflections depends on the morphological status of the word involved, whereas no morphological spelling rule determines the correct spelling for this sound in word stems. We report the results of a 13-month longitudinal study in which we investigated the spellings by 105 Greek children of the sound /i/ both in stems and in inflections in real words, and in pseudo-word inflections too. The children were generally more successful with words in which the correct spelling of the sound was a single letter ("i" and "h") than when it was a digraph ("ei" and "oi"). Rote learning and also morphological-rule learning both clearly contributed to the correct spelling of "i", "h", "ei", and "oi".

  • Jacques CRINON (Créteil)
    Distance Revision for Learning to Write Narrative Texts
    2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 85-99

    Students from nine to twelve years old corresponded by e-mail in order to revise adventure stories they had written. The protocol differentiated the two roles: tutors providing critical advice to their partners vs receptors-users of these criticisms. In this context, each participant produced and revised four texts during a school year. Comparing the two versions of the texts and the improvement of the writers' skills between the first and last texts highlighted the different impact of peer tutoring according to the role and the level of students. The protocol appears to have contributed, particularly among producers of criticism, to a better conceptualization of the genre and to a progressive appropriation of processes which are necessary to master writing.

  • Jeannine GERBAULT (Bordeaux)
    ICT: A Panorama of Spaces of Interaction and Feedback for the Learning of Written Expression in a Foreign Language
    2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 37-52

    Today, the reflection about the potential of ICT for language learning and teaching unfolds in several directions. To the contribution of multimodality in learning environments is now added that of the new devices for communication and collaboration. We examine these contributions in a systematic manner in relation to the specific position of the foreign language (L2) writer as well as to his/her activity and production. After clarification of the concepts of writing and of learning how to write, and of our definitions of a few terms, I present the key concepts and factors that I believe should be taken into account in analyzing the ICT resources supporting the learning of L2 writing, then I present the devices themselves and their functionalities, in order to establish how they meet the criteria that have been outlined.

  • Marie-Christine HAZAËL-MASSIEUX (Aix-en-Provence)
    Creole languages on their way to writing
    1997, Vol. II-2, pp. 7-18

    This article tries to define the implications of the present evolution of creoles, which are essentially oral languages, towards writing. It aims to show that proceeding to the written form is not merely a technical question, but a multi-faceted problem, due to the fact that the conditions of communication are very different in writing as compared to the oral. The development of an autonomous literature plays in this regard a determining role.

  • Marie-Christine HAZAËL-MASSIEUX (Aix-en-Provence)
    The writing of French creoles at the dawn of the 3rd millennium: an inventory
    2005, Vol. X-1, pp. 77-90

    The attitude of native speakers of Creoles with regard to written Creoles and vis-a-vis the "standardizing" efforts of linguists is an important subject which needs to be constantly re-examined. In the face of the general trend towards the standardization of Creole graphic systems, the reaction of speakers, themselves potential writers, has changed very little. The militants, for their part, would like to see all obstacles to written Creole swiftly removed in those places where Creoles writing is not in favor. Different cases involving different countries must be taken into account in order to arrive at a better understanding of the kinds of situations in which written Creole languages develop, whatever the degree to which diglossia or even various types of multilingualism may be present.

  • François MANGENOT (Grenoble)
    A Learning Environment as an Aid for Writing by Incitation and Socialisation
    2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 101-119

    This paper presents and evaluates, with a qualitative approach, a learning scenario based on an online piece of software and aimed at supporting Thai university students during their writing process in French as a foreign language. The scenario included software prompting aids, immediate access to texts of the same type (thus connecting reading and writing), and easy text sharing and commenting (peer feedback) through a LMS (Moodle). The paper analyses how far these three pedagogic principles were supported by the scenario, what were the limits of this support and how the scenario ought to be improved. The methodology consisted in cross-checking various data: software prompts, students' texts and comments, semi directive interviews.

  • Brendan O'REGAN (Lille 3)
    From Spell, Grammar and Style Checkers to Writing Aids for English and French as a Foreign Language: Challenges and Opportunities
    2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 67-84

    For spell and grammar checkers to be useful, they need to be geared towards language learners. In this paper, we focus on spelling, grammar and style checkers, which have been specifically designed for learners of French and English, some of them evolving towards real writing aids. We examine the features of the programs on the market which characterise this evolution towards real writing aids. This paper examines the capabilities of these writing tools when faced with a corpus of learner-written production and evaluates the opportunities these findings present us with as well as the challenges that lay ahead for an efficient integration within a foreign language learning environment focusing on written expression.

  • Ide O'SULLIVAN (Limerick, Irlande)
    Using corpora to enhance learners' academic writing skills in French
    2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 21-35

    Reporting the work of others and appropriate reference to other texts is essential for academic writers. Acceptance into the academic discourse community is subject to mastery of citation techniques, yet students continue to struggle with such practices throughout their tertiary education, particularly non-native speakers of a language. Learners are often unaware of the mechanisms available to them for reporting, for instance, the relationship between reporting verbs and evaluation and, therefore, fail to locate their position in relation to the work of the cited author. This paper explores the use of academic text corpora in French as a means of enhancing language learners' academic writing skills, most notably as a means of enhancing their citation practices in French. It is argued that equipping L2 writers with such skills allows them to express an appropriate stance and put forth more convincing arguments. The conclusion suggests that corpus consultation literacy has an important role to play in the development of learners' written production and that academic text corpora are a valuable resource for access to the specialised language and textual organisation of academic discourse communities.

  • Christian OLLIVIER (La Réunion)
    Collaborative Writing Online : An Interactional Approach to Written Production for Active and Motivated Social Learners
    2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 121-137

    The communication and collaboration tools that are available on the web 2.0 offer new opportunities for teaching and learning languages. We present here the results of two similar experiments on collaborative writing for the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. We show that working with Wikipedia initiates a real collaborative process between the students, the Wikipedian Community and the teacher and that this kind of task - which includes real social interactions - is a motivating factor for the learners. Based on these results we promote the implementation of real life tasks and of an "interactional approach".

    Cognitive science and the acquisition of reading and writing
    1997, Vol. II-2, pp. 35-49

    Reading (and spelling) studies conducted in the framework of 'Cognitive Sciences' are based on models which have to take into account expert reading, reading acquisition as well as acquired and developmental reading disabilities. Predictions based on these models are compared to psycholinguistic observations, to neurolinguistic investigations, and/or to simulation data. These models, which have to explain general cognitive processes, must also take into account environmental parameters. The main objective of this paper is to explain reading (and spelling) acquisition processes. We review studies on English-, German-, Spanish-, and French-speaking children. All these languages have alphabets, but differ in the transparency of their grapheme-phoneme correspondences. Results of these studies might therefore allow to distinguish between what depends on universal processes and what depends on the linguistic environment. We describe methods used in reading (and spelling) studies also because striking differences between research results may also be due to methodological problems.

  • K.C. TSAI (Tzu-Chi University, Taiwan)
    The effect of character structure on children's learning of chinese pseudo-characters
    2003, Vol. VIII-1, pp. 47-61

    The main organising feature of the Chinese writing system is the ideophonetic compound - that is, a character structure with two elements, a semantic radical, which gives a clue to the meaning of the character, and a phonological component, which gives a clue to the pronunciation. In a previous investigation, it was shown that children use this character structure when learning novel Chinese characters (Tsai & Nunes, in press): pseudo-characters that fit the ideophonetic compound structure were learned more easily than those that violate it, irrespective of the children's age and of testing mode (reading or writing). The aim of this study was to examine further how this character schema affects children's learning by varying the level of agreement between the pseudo-characters and the ideophonetic compound structure and the type of phonological rules used in obtaining pronunciation. In our experiments learning was significantly affected independently by the transparency of the semantic radical and the regularity of the phonological component.

  • Serge VERLINDE (Louvain, Belgique)
    The conception of Integrated Tutorial Software as an Aid for Reading, Translation and Writing
    2010, Vol. XV-2, pp. 53-65

    The Base lexicale du français (BLF) website functions as a portal to numerous lexicographic resources for French. The structure of the interface is based on the potential needs of the users. However, the various options available may also confuse the user. Therefore, we have developed a new functionality which allows users to submit texts they either want to read or translate. After the texts have been analysed, they are presented to the user with an additional layer of relevant lexicographic information. This information appears in the form of a pop-up window for every word. In addition to these reading and translation assistants, the BLF also offers a writing assistant which differs considerably from traditional grammar checkers.