Camille Roger ABOLOU (Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire)
Juridical discourse in sub-Saharan Africa. Terminology and translation in legal matters
2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 17-31
Initially, work on translation concentrated on exploiting the capacity of African languages to express modernity. Later research in translation in sub-Saharan Africa has concentrated on legal ethnography, working on ontological systems, legal texts within which a multiplicity of sources of law are intermingled, in particular customary law, civil law and common law. These justice systems are superimposed and intertwined, giving rise to a legal disorder. The post-colonial African countries have the major challenge, apart from the one-way communication which characterises them, with what can be called interjuridicity, a zone of interference where jurisigns (borrowings and legal calques) appear. The concept of interjuridicity sheds light on the problems of legal translation in sub-Saharan Africa which can be solved by applying various heuristic approaches.
Sylvain AUROUX (CNRS / Grenoble)
The Linguistic Terminology Dictionary Project
1998, Vol. III-2, pp. 109-113
Henning BERGENHOLTZ (Aarhus, Danemark)
Faster and more reliable retrieval of data in specialized printed and digital dictionaries and lexicons
2009, Vol. XIV-2, pp. 81-97
In the information age we have more accessible data than ever before. At the same time there is undoubtedly a greater information need than ever before. We can distinguish between at least three types of information needs: communicative, cognitive and operational. Dictionaries will normally focus on one or more communicative functions, encyclopaedias normally on cognitive functions, user guides and manuals focus on operational functions. To perform such functions, we need reference books containing the necessary data. This is a main topic both in metalexicography and in terminography. Far less observations have been made to the no less important question: How and especially how quick can the user get access to the data ?
Frédérique BRIN-HENRY (Centre Hospitalier de Bar-le-Duc)
Using corpus-based analyses in specialised paramedical French
2014, Vol. XIX-1, pp. 103-115
Diagnostic labels used in assessment reports in Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) show inconsistent semantic and syntactic variations. In this article we describe the way SLT terminology relates to the patients’ situation and the representations held by the professionals for each pathological condition. A corpus of 436 French reports was used to extract the most frequently used terms (such as “difficulté(s)”), to perform an analysis of the labelling process (e.g.: test usage, diagnosis according to patient age group and pathology) and to describe the most salient semantic and syntactic properties (e.g.: dynamic factor, use of prepositions “de/à”). Two major categories emerged with terms expressing on the one hand a procedural or functional and on the other hand a more systemic conception of the pathology. The aim is to establish new basis for a more accurate taxonomy.
Maria Teresa CABRÉ (Barcelone, Espagne)
The communicative theory of Terminology, a linguistic approach of terms
2009, Vol. XIV-2, pp. 9-15
The theory of terminology has evolved considerably in recent years, responding on the one hand to new challenges in specialised communication and profiting on the other from new trends in general linguistics. The general theory of terminology, which used to be concerned largely with matters of standardisation, has given way to a more open approach, firmly set in the sphere of linguistics which is better equipped to account for the various scenarios used in scientific and technical communication. The communicative theory of terminology is a linguistic approach which studies terms simultaneously as units of language, of cognition and of social function. The article discusses the theoretical basis of this approach, and its suitability for describing terms and its empirical value in accounting for the diversity of the data but without foregoing the possibility of treating terms from other points of view.
Bernard COMBETTES (Nancy 2)
Problems with defining a terminology for language teaching
1998, Vol. III-2, pp. 99-108
In examining the new grammatical terminology to be used in secondary education, great emphasis is put on showing that establishing a terminolgy cannot be separated from didactic aspects (such as contents and processes), both in the selection of the notions and in their hierarchy. In this specific case, the division of the subject matter in three categories (discourse, texte, sentence) causes the greatest difficulties.
Anne CONDAMINES (Toulouse 2-Le Mirail / CNRS)
The role of interpretation in corpus semantics: building a terminology
2007, Vol. XII-1, pp. 39-52
The aim of this paper is to focus on the necessity of a double marking-out when doing the semantic analysis of the data of a corpus. The first mark lies in the situation in which texts are produced and the second one lies in the interpretation of the texts. In both cases, the author suggests to use the notion of 'genre' (textual 'genre' and interpretative 'genre') in order to classify and categorize situations. The issue is exemplified by the problem of the building of terminologies according to a particular interpretative 'genre'. The paper shows how textual 'genre' influences the functioning of conceptual relations patterns (e.g. the preposition avec is used to spot a meronymic relation). It demonstrates that this kind of analysis may help to refine the descriptions initially made by introspection.
Sandra DE CALDAS (Université Paris 8)
Contemporary French and Portuguese lexical creation processes in the field of economics and finance
2015, Vol.XX-1, pp. 45-60
Neology is a creative and innovative phenomenon which contributes to the evolution of languages, from a general perspective and in terms of specialized usage. The formation of new lexical and terminological units becomes an individual and collective conscious process. This article presents a comparative study of language enrichment process through neonyms in (European) Portuguese and (hexagonal) French, extracted from a corpus of comparable texts in French and Portuguese taken from press sources (since 2010) in the field of economics and finance. The first part of this paper is devoted to a preliminary theoretical presentation of language enrichment and lexical creativity. We then go on to explain, in the second part, the main observed neological processesusing concrete examples.
Loïc DEPECKER (Paris 3)
The era of institutional terminology
1998, Vol. III-2, pp. 7-13
Three major aspects of terminology work can be analysed: terminology applied to standardisation, translation and information. These aspects come from the three principal moments of terminology development in this century. This article deals with the growing importance of terminology in information sciences and data processing.
Mathieu DEVINAT (Sherbrooke, Canada)
Bijuridism and bilingualism in Canada: ideals under tension
2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 33-50
Since its creation in 1867, Canada is founded on a political compromise between two founding nations that gave an equal status to distinct legal traditions both expressed in two official languages. In order to fulfill these ideals, however, Canadian jurists must assimilate two legal cultures and languages, an expertise far from reach for everyday citizens, and probably even from a majority of jurists themselves! This paper aims to present in a critical manner the legal discourse surrounding the implementation of bilingualism and bijuridism in Canadian law. In our opinion, the Canadian example highlights the methodological and terminological challenges related to the recognition of two languages and legal traditions within the same legal order.
Marcel DIKI-KIDIRI (CNRS-Llacan)
Methods in terminology for African languages
1998, Vol. III-2, pp. 15-28
This article aims to show that the furthering of african languages as a means of information and education makes it necessary that these languages be 'instrumentalised', i.e. supplied with all the tools that are indispensable for their development (orthographic nomalisation, a grammar, dictionaries and so forth). Of these tools the terminological enrichment plays a central role. However, this terminological activity has to be conducted in a sociological and cultural context whose specificity in a certain sense puts constraints on the methodology. This is illustrated by the translation of the Declaration of Human Rights in sängo, one of the official languages in the Central African Republic.
Pascaline DURY (Lyon 2)
Terminology and diachrony: towards a theoretical and methodological reconciliation
2009, Vol. XIV-2, pp. 31-41
Terminology has conventionally been biased in favour of synchrony and most studies carried out in the field have remained fixed on specialised language at a point in time. After having listed the possible reasons for the lack in the production of diachronic accounts of specialised languages, we shall discuss new developments, in the theory as well as in the methodology, of what may be called “modern” terminology. We will then show that the use of corpus linguistics and computer science has undoubtedly helped “modern” terminology to focus more on corpus provision and study in diachrony. We will finally show that a lot remains to be done for diachrony to join synchrony as a major interest of study in terminology, making it an area ripe for growth.
Pamela FABER (Granada, España)
Neural Substrates of Specialized Knowledge Representation: An fMRI study
2014, Vol. XIX-1, pp. 15-32
Brain-imaging techniques can be applied in specialized language research to provide insights into how specialized concepts are represented, and processed in the brain. The fMRI study described in this paper focused on general and specialized lexical units and the perception of semantic meaning by expert geologists and non-geologists. The subjects performed semantic matching tasks and made decisions in regards to general language words and specialized terms designating specialized tools and familiar household utensils. The linguistic processing of specialized terms was found to be modulated by the individual’s previous experience with the objects. These results strengthen the hypothesis that when performing a domain-specific task, experts activate different brain systems from novices. This provides data regarding which brain systems are involved in cognitive processes.
Joaquín GARCÍA PALACIOS (Salamanque, Espagne)
The need for specialised neological competence for the study and application of terminological neology
2009, Vol. XIV-2, pp. 17-30
Work in terminological neology must necessarily involve an in-depth study of all the elements implied in the processes of lexical generation in a specialised field of study, of which the most important is what we call specialised neological competence. This paper starts from a review of the terminological neology carried out in recent decades, and is based on the application of a method embracing the joint contributions of different linguistic disciplines.
Philippe GRÉCIANO (Grenoble)
Translation and its problems in the trials of the Red Khmers
2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 119-126
Philippe GRÉCIANO (Grenoble)
The war on terrorism and its demands on the legal system
2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 63-76
Since September 11 2001 the world has been faced with challenges to the defence of nations and the security of their citizens, leading to hitherto unused laws, policies and strategies to counter the terrorist threat. This is a major challenge: to reconcile security needs with the demands of law, and respecting citizens' liberty, their language, their culture and their legitimate aspirations. In this paper, antiterrorist discourse will first be studied, its terms and definitions examined, as well as the types of texts used and the way they are formulated in language. Then the cross-disciplinary approach is used to produce practical methods to ascertain the state of terrorist threat in its international dimension, to achieve a fine grained but global understanding of the phenomenon for the future.
Mathieu GUIDÈRE (Toulouse 2)
Multilingual humanitarian mediation in conflict management
2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 51-62
In the framework of humanitarian mediation, multilingual communication has a strong cultural component. This article begins by situating the Other in a global fashion, and then goes on to view ways in which a balance of perception can be established between those involved by working out a precise, rigorous diagnosis to shed light on the conceptions, feelings and intentions of all concerned, illustrated by several examples. Amongst the tools used, mention should be made of distancing, decentring, intercultural competence and Natural Semantic Metalanguage.
Alain GUILLAUME (Université Quisqueya, Haïti)
How law is expressed in creole or how to diminish the juridical differences in Haiti
2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 77-91
Haitian society is characterized by a number of dichotomies which are manifested in law in the form of an unequal bilingualism and a particular form of bijuralism. The legal integration of the Nation implies that the law be expressed in creole and that customary standards should be taken into account in written law. These measures would enrich substantive law in Haiti, though complex to implement.
Jean-Claude GÉMAR (Montréal, Canada)
"Jurilinguistics" and its sources: the juridical text, languages and cultures
2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 9-16
John HUMBLEY (CNRS)
Documentation in Terminology
1998, Vol. III-2, pp. 115-124
John HUMBLEY (CNRS)
Terminology: current trends
2009, Vol. XIV-2, pp. 5-8
Hendrik J. KOCKAERT (Lessius)
A tool for managing terminology in juridical translation activities in Belgium; How it works and what it can do
2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 93-104
The Department of Applied Language Studies of Lessius and the Research unit of quantitative and variational linguistics of the K.U. Leuven have been invited by the translation department of the Ministry of Justice to develop a Terminology Management System (TMS) of legal phraseology and terminology allowing translators to work with correct, coherent and expert-revised phraseologies and terminologies in the three national languages. This paper firstly investigates how terminology management has been carried out in the translation departments of the federal public services of justice in Belgium. Based on this survey, this paper proposes a TMS tool which is based on a new concept of phraseological terminology. To reach this goal, an extraction method of phraseological terminology based on some usage-based models of language will serve as a basis of a customised experimental analysis method which will allow us to design a road map capable of developing terminology, specifically engineered for the legal translation LSP.
Patrick LEROYER (Aarhus, Danemark)
In terms of wine: lexicographisation of an on-line tourist guide for wine-lovers
2009, Vol. XIV-2, pp. 99-116
Online tourist guides are information tools communicating destination image and specialised knowledge at the same time. They feature a large variety of lexicographic structures including word lists, articles, conceptual schemes, indexes and registers, search options on keywords, internal and external cross references etc. This is by no means surprising in so far as what is needed is effective data access in order to extract information – precisely in the same way as in lexicography. The functional thesis we defend in this article is that lexicographisation in a user perspective can improve the access process. Taking œnotouristic online guides as a case in point, we will examine different user situations leading to consultation, in particular the need for experiential information, in which users simply wish to improve the conditions of their œnotouristic experience. We will then formulate theoretical proposals aimed at ensuring better interaction of lexicographic functions, data presentation and access possibilities.
Susanne LERVAD (Termplus ApS, Danemark)
Research in terminology and practical applications: ways of co-operation with partners in the Danish industry
2009, Vol. XIV-2, pp. 73-80
The linguist services company Termplus ApS specialises in developing term and knowledge bases for Danish businesses. One important aspect of this activity concerns managing issues of synonymy in a multilingual industrial context. As is generally recognised, synonyms tend to develop unchecked in various aspects of a company’s activities and documentation, leading to inconsistencies and misunderstandings, which may in worst case scenarios lead to financial losses due to faulty interpretations of decisions or safety procedures. In order to provide a practical answer to this challenge and to help firms to manage their language resources optimally, Termplus ApS turns to current research in LSP as well as accepted terminology practice. The result is clear, systematic professional communication.
François MANIEZ (Lyon 2)
Denominal adjectives in specialised language: the case of the medical domain
2009, Vol. XIV-2, pp. 117-130
Relational adjectives are a key component of specialized language in French as well as many other languages. The use of relational adjectives as a substitute for a prepositional phrase follows the principle of economy in language, but it is also a characteristic of specialized discourse: French physicians will use expressions like “cancer mammaire” or “infarctus myocardique” where the layman uses “cancer du sein” or “infarctus du myocarde”. After studying morphological, syntactic and semantic aspects of relational adjectives, we attempt to identify some of the factors that seem to induce the use of relational adjectives instead of prepositional phrase complements, based on examples drawn from an eight-million-word corpus of medical research articles; variation in the use of the adjectives coronaire and coronarien is also studied.
Taoufik MASSOUSSI (Paris 13)
Automated processing of metonymies
2009, Vol. XIV-2, pp. 43-56
Metonymy plays an important though often neglected role in lexicalisation, both in general language and in language for special purposes. This article shows how principles set out to account automatically for metonymy in general language are directly applicable to LSP.
Morten PILEGAARD (Aarhus, Danemark)
Collaborative repositories: An organisational and technological response to current challenges in specialised knowledge communication?
2009, Vol. XIV-2, pp. 57-71
This paper presents concepts and systems for multilingual terminological and textual knowledge codification, representation, validation, management and sharing structured around the notion of genre. These systems operationalize the different stages of the ‘virtuous knowledge cycle’ within a dynamic, multilingual specialized web-dictionary and a multilingual, genre-based corpus of medical texts genre hierarchies or systems. The knowledge cycle approach mirrors ‘real life’ working processes and allows for repeated conversions of knowledge between its tacit and explicit forms, allowing knowledge to codify and spiral up from the individual to the collective level at corporate, ‘community of practice’. The paper reports on the results of the implementation of these concepts and systems in general and the web-dictionary in particular within the Danish health care, pharmaceutical, medical device and translation sectors which technologically have been fused into one collective ‘knowledge cluster’ and it discusses the opportunities for research and business that spring from fusion of language and health technologies.
Caroline SCHAETZEN (DE) (Bruxelles, Belgique)
Corpora and terminology: Building specialised corpora for making dictionaries
1996, Vol. I-2, pp. 57-76
Construction of dictionaries or specialised glossaries is more and more based on large corpora. This article aims at presenting a state of the art of the numerous technical problems that arise in the construction and exploitation of these corpora, and on computer programmes developed to help solve these problems.
Simon TAYLOR (Paris-Diderot)
The European Union and National Legal Languages: an Awkward Partnership?
2011, Vol. XVI-1, pp. 105-118
The harmonisation of the laws of Member States in various areas of private law constitutes an important element of the European Union integration process. The principal legislative mechanism used to achieve this harmonisation is the directive. Effective harmonisation of national laws can only be achieved if the Community legislation is applied in the same way in the different national legal systems. Many of the challenges in ensuring a harmonised application of community legislation are connected to issues of legal language. Amongst other examples, this paper will use the European directive on product liability (la responsabilité du fait des produits défectueux) as an illustration of the various language issues raised and the solutions available to ensure an effective level of harmonisation. This will be done through a study of the English and French versions of the directive, and by considering the experience of the implementation of the provisions of the directive in French and English law.
Rita TEMMERMAN (Bruxelles, Belgique)
Terminology theory and Terminography in a Natural Language Processing Environment
1998, Vol. III-2, pp. 29-46
Terminography has been benefiting from computerised Natural Language Processing. In this article we discuss the possibilities offered by computer tools for both terminography and terminology research. We also draw the attention to the limitations imposed by traditional terminology theory (e.g. the Vienna school approach) and propose alternative principles and methods for terminography. We show how a new paradigm inspired by recent developments in cognitive semantics and discourse analysis could yield more realistic principles and methods for terminography and the development of alternative Natural Language Processing Tools.
Chienwen TSAI (Université Nationale de Kaohsiung de l'Hôtellerie et du Tourisme)
Specialised language in professional wine magazines: a comparative study of wine terminology in three wine magazines
2014, Vol. XIX-1, pp. 117-131
The tasting reviews in professional wine magazines are often written in accordance with recognized tasting steps and specific vocabulary. This article introduces, first of all, the process of wine tasting and formation of wine terminology. Then we analyze reviews of three wine magazines with the help of previous research results and a wine language dictionary (Dictionnaire de la langue du vin). We could reexamine the composition and the ‘degree of technical nature’ of words in the reviews. In the end, we propose several avenues worth exploring.
Chienwen TSAI (Université Nationale de Kaohsiung de l'Hôtellerie et du Tourisme)
A lexical analysis of culinary verbs in specialized dictionaries
2017, Vol. XXII-1, pp. 117-129
Terms play a significant role in many domains of activity. In French culinary art, they are useful to transmit cooking knowledge, communicate in a professionnal kitchen, access to specialized documents, etc. There are a lot of culinary verbs because culinary techniques and different modes of cooking are so important in this domain. In addition to monosemic culinary verbs, many other verbs have metaphorical meaning of a ordinary word. In this paper, we propose a morphological and semantic analysis for culinary verbs from two specialized dictionaries: Le lexique culinaire de Ferrandi and Les mots de la cuisine et de la table. After studying them, we could learn more about lexical features of culinary verbs. The research results may promote the teaching of French for culinary art.
Marc VAN CAMPENHOUDT (Université libre de Bruxelles)
Modelization and standardized exchange of lexical data in language for special purposes
2017, Vol. XXII-1, pp. 41-60
In order for their content to be exploited to the fullest, true electronic dictionaries must store data using underlying structures and categories. Specialised terminology dictionaries, especially multilingual ones, can strongly benefit from a design where the data is organised into highly granular categories and structured following a monosemic ‘spoke-hub’ model. A representation consistent with the ISO 16 642 standard (TerminologicalMarkup Framework, 2003) would be a very appropriate way to implement this model. However, using XML markup that meets this standard set by the International Organization for Standardization is not a guarantee of the data’s quality or interoperability.
Pierre ZWEIGENBAUM (CNRS-LIMSI)
Automatic processing of medical terminology
2001, Vol. VI-2, pp. 47-62
Specialized texts are characterized by a specific terminology. Medicine holds a particular position in this respect, both because of the impressive number of terms involved and of the amount of international effort devoted to build normalized terminologies. These terminologies play a key role in medical information and knowledge processing. A large part of the work performed on medical language processing is therefore centered on these terminologies, either as information targets or as knowledge sources. We present here, through examples drawn from our own work, various aspects of medical terminology processing.