During the last few years, international surveys have invaded the area of politics, media and pedagogy. They will probably have had some effects, but were all these effects positive ? Haven’t they had some, not always perceived, perverse side effects ? And more importantly, what is their effect on the action, i.e. on all those who contribute to improve the language of teaching ? In order to answer these questions, we attempt to analyse the effects of international tests on the basis of nine double edged questions (negative and positive). Next, we examine what is done on a national level in an effort to understand the factors that influence the obtained results and in what way the national evaluations have been influenced by these analyses. From all these analyses, we try to deduct the conditions for these international and national tests to be considered as complementary.