• Kate BEECHING (Bristol, Grande-Bretagne)
    The translation equivalence of bon, enfin, well and I mean
    2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 91-105

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the usefulness of two methods of attempting to capture the semantic change which has led to the multifunctional nature of four pragmaticalising polysemous connectors in French and English - bon, enfin, well and I mean - : a) translation equivalence which may help to disambiguate evolving polysemies and b) Haspelmath's (2003) semantic map approach to cross-linguistic typology and the implicational hierarchies which mark the development of these polysemies. The article concludes that degrees of pragmaticalisation can be revealed in translation equivalence, but this is, of necessity, only partial, and that cross-linguistic semantic mapping can perhaps better capture the diachronic developmental stages and the degree of translation equivalence between the terms.

  • Marie-Laure ELALOUF (Cergy-Pontoise)
    Connectors in French ministerial directives and textbooks (French L1/English L2)
    2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 121-140

    In French L1 syllabuses, the term connecteur is defined according to semantic criteria and covering invariable words, and even syntagms commuting with adverbial phrases. They are given in lists and thus cannot be really used to interpret L1 texts.L2 learners are not made aware of the functioning of these heterogeneous L2 units, which makes their task even more arduous. The L1 filter compounded by limited awareness of the functioning of L1 thus leads to one-to-one relations that hinder L2 skills especially when items learnt by rote are artificially inserted instead of being used to connect ideas. A unified and contrastive grammatical terminology would allow an efficient metalinguistic awareness.

  • Anna GIACALONE RAMAT (Pavie, Italie)
    The use of connectors: is però always equivalent to mais?
    2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 57-74

    Italian grammars written for French speakers do not pay much attention to però and touch very briefly upon its difference with respect to ma. The present study is based upon a detailed analysis of French translation equivalents of però in Veronesi's novel Caos calmo (2005) and draws upon Italian oral data from the LIP corpus (1993). Results of this study show how the grammars considered fail to offer clear indications concerning the freedom of position inside the sentence and the stronger value of però. Furthermore, the introduction of the diachronic dimension shows the gradual development of contrast relations out of temporal and causal lexical sources along paths already established for the processes of grammaticalization and highlights the present-day distribution in both languages.

  • Lucie GOURNAY (Paris-Est Créteil)
    Connectors and the expression of contrast: a French-English comparative study
    2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 75-89

    This paper focuses on the contribution supplied by a cross-linguistic approach of the diversity of discourse connectives. It includes two case-studies, which aim at implementations in the lexicological and teaching fields: first, the non equivalence of mais / but when sentence-initial mais does not mark an argumentative opposition; second, false cognates actually / actuellement which hardly ever correspond. These two complementary case-studies illustrate two cases of non direct translation.

  • Adelaida HERMOSO MELLADO (Séville, Espagne)
    The adverbs Décidément / Decididamente and some others
    2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 9-23

    The main goal of this study is to show through the comparative study of the adjuncts décidément and decididamente (and some others) in French and Spanish respectively that a) morphological similarity between two languages is far from being a reliable criterion for translation, as exemplified in: Décidément, quel désastre ! / ¡Desde luego! *¡Decididamente!, ¡Qué desastre! ('It's definitely a disaster!'); b) using elementatry linguistic properties leads to better results. In addition to French décidément, which is the core of the debate, some others cases will also be considered like définitivement, naturellement, incontestablement, indubitablement vs desde luego, decididamente, naturalmente and sin duda. To avoid making arbitrary choices, a good translation of connectives and discursive markers must establish and apply very strict operating rules, as regards syntax and semantics of course, but also contextual and cotextual characteristics.

  • Richard INGHAM (Birmingham, Grande-Bretagne)
    Anglo-Norman and the ‘plural history’ of French: the connectives pourtant and à cause que
    2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 107-119

    Localised and dated administrative documents and other such textual resources in three Anglo-Norman electronic corpora provide a new perspective on variation in pre-modern French. They may offer insights into important aspects of spatial and register variation across time. These new resources allow for a better-informed picture of semantic-pragmatic changes in the history of French than is available in traditional approaches favouring the development of francien and standard French. It is shown here that the the connectives pourtant et à cause que appear in Anglo-Norman with their present-day meanings well before the dates proposed in historical reference dictionaries. Frequent data occurrences available from Anglo-Norman texts of the XIVth century will facilitate the investigation of the beginnings of semantic changes in post-medieval French lexis.

  • Olga INKOVA (Genève, Suisse)
    Russian anaphoric connectors: between subordination and coordination
    2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 25-40

    The aim of this contribution is to give a survey of the Russian subordination markers derived from a correlative scheme. They are characterized by different degrees of grammaticalization - which makes their classification difficult and sometimes contradictory. The author proposes solutions for a uniform classification of these markers and examines the problem of the translation of these markers into French.

  • Maria SVENSSON (Uppsala, Suède)
    Correlational markers in French and Swedish: the example of non seulement... mais and inte bara... utan
    2011, Vol. XVI-2, pp. 41-56

    We will present a study of the French correlative marker non seulement... mais in comparison to inte bara... utan in Swedish. On the basis of a bilingual corpus of original texts in the two languages and translations in the two directions, we will show how these markers contribute to the organization of discourse in specialized literature in the humanities. Our analysis will focus on the formal, contextual, semantic and argumentative similarities and differences between non seulement... mais and inte bara... utan. The contrastive perspective will allow a description of differences and similarities between the languages, as well as point out the difficulties of translation. Furthermore, it will contribute to the description of the function of these correlative markers in each language.